History of Creation
The T-34-85 standard in 1960 is an improved model of the T-34-85 standard in 1944. T-34-85 period majestically Russian War, developed by the design bureau of Gorky plant number 112 «Red Sormovo». Managed the development of the chief designer of the plant VV Krylov Then the technical documentation on the car head-approved plant number 183 in Nizhny Tagil (chief designer — Morozov AA). January 23, 1944 GKO decree number 5020 tank adopted the Red Army. The creation of these tanks was carried out at the plants number 112 «Red Sormovo», № 174 (Omsk) and number 183 in the period from March 1944 to December 1946. In the aftermath of the war were fired plants 5742 tank.
In 1947, the car was given the factory designation «Object 135». In 1950 she once upgraded. Modernization measures at the factory overhaul of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. These activities (which were to improve the technical and combat characteristics, increasing the reliability of the units and units of the tank, ease of maintenance) developed the Institute of CEZ-100 and number 1 on the instructions of HBTU. Final testing of drawings and technical documents for updating, approved in 1960, performed under the control of head designer Kartseva LN Design Bureau of Plant number 183 (Nizhny Tagil). The T-34-85 standard in 1960 had a conventional model of the general assembly, the crew — 5 people. Interior equipment was located in 4 offices: the transmission, engine, combat and control. The hulls, turret, chassis, transmission and power plant in comparison with the T-34-85 standard in 1944 did not undergo significant configurations.
Building and equipment
In the control compartment located gunner (right) and driver (left), DTM machine gun mounted in the ball mount, controls a tank, instrumentation, two hand-held fire extinguishers, two compressed air cylinders, machine TPU, also spare parts and the ammunition . The driver went through a hatch in the car, which was located in the upper front plate of the hulls and armor locked lid. The cover flap of the driver was equipped with with 2 observation devices, which served to increase the horizontal viewing angle (were deployed in the side of the hull sides). For observation of the terrain and the road into the black at the time of the day the driver had night vision device BVN. BVN set consisted of the device, a high-voltage power supply, lights FG-100 has an infrared filter and spare parts. BVN device and spare parts to it when not in use were stored in the packing box, which is located behind the driver’s seat in the first box boeukladki. In the fore body of the bracket fastened to the additional optical element having an infrared filter.
BVN device using mounted in a removable bracket that is mounted on the Bonk, welded to the right side of the flap to the upper front plate (with all the cover flap was open). The power supply unit mounted on a bracket inside the tank on the left side, on the right side of the hull — Light FG-100 has an infrared filter. The left FG-102 filmed optical element and svetomaskirovochnuyu head, and instead of using an optical element having an infrared filter. Before sitting in the bottom of the machine gunner’s compartment had emergency hatch, which is locked flip-down lid armor (using a loop).
In the fighting compartment, which occupied the middle part of the body and the internal volume of the tower were armament with mechanisms aiming and sights, observation devices, communications equipment and the ammunition, and jobs, the tank commander and gunner — to the left of the gun, loader — right. On the roof of the tower above the commander’s seat was placed non-rotating cupola. The side walls of the observation towers had 5 slots (protected by glass), which provided an overview of the commander of the groove. In the roof of the turret had a front flap, closes bronekryshkoy. In turn base flap installed observation device TPKU-2B or TPC-1. In the roof of the tower above the jobs gunner and loader was installed by one periscope rotator MK-4. For planting crew apart from the input flap present in the commander’s turret hatch was used, made over workplace charging in the right part of the roof of the tower. Flap secured with hinged lid armor on one hinge.
The left side of the tank in the fighting compartment was mounted boiler nozzle heater, which was included in the cooling system of the engine. During the fighting compartment housed the engine compartment. They shared a removable baffle. In the engine compartment located engine, four batteries and two radiators. In the left upper removable and non-removable sheet is cut to access the heater blower, covering case. At the door there was a window to the side plate for nozzle heater. In the rear of the chassis transmission compartment was separated from the wall of the engine compartment. It was established with the main clutch centrifugal fan units boxes, air, fuel tanks and electric starter.
Weapons and sights
The main instrument of the T-34-85 standard in 1960 was the tank gun ZIS-S-53 85 mm with a semi-automatic mechanical (follower) of the type and vertical breech. Barrel Length — 54.6 caliber strip height of fire — 2.02 m with gun ZIS-S-53 was paired DTM machine gun 7.62 mm. In the vertical plane of the sighting paired installation was carried out in the spectrum of -5 to +22 degrees with a hoist sector type. Unaffected place in the management of fire from twin set was 23 meters. To protect the hoist during a march on the dynamic loads on the bracket to the left of the gun, located inside the tower stop marching gun position that ensures fixing implements a 2-positions (elevation angles — 16 and 0 degrees). In the horizontal plane of the installation was carried out aiming paired BCH placed to the left of the gunner’s seat in the tower. The design of the mechanism of turret rotation provided by electromotive or manual drive. When using electromotive drive (used 1.35-kilowatt electric motor MB-20B) tower turned in both directions with 2 different speeds. The highest rate of rotation of the tower at all it was 30 degrees per second.
On the part of the T-34-85 of the last model year two-speed electric turret was replaced by a new electric KR-31. This drive allows rotation of the tower with the gunner’s station or from the commander. Rotating turret gunner was carried out by the controller, the rheostat KR-31. The direction of rotation of the tower with all this corresponded to handle deviation to the right or to the left from the initial position. Swing speed wondered angle of the controller handles and varied in the range — from 2 to 26 degrees per second. Tank commander turned the tower with the help of the commander’s control button is pressed, which was mounted on the left handle of the inspection unit commander. Transfer of the tower was carried out on the shortest path until the alignment axis of the bore and the band of sight viewing device. Speed — 20-24 degrees per second. In the stowed position, locking the turret stop carried by the tower mounted on the right side (approximately adjustable loader) in one of the ball gripper support tower.
To observe the battlefield, determining distance to the target, aimed fire from the gun and coaxial machine gun, fire correction was used armored articulated telescopic sight TSH-16. Most range precision fire from a cannon — 5.2 thousand meters of coaxial machine gun — 1,5 thousand meters to prevent fogging of the glass sight it equipped with electric heater. In the conduct of fire from guns with indirect fire was used lateral level, attached to the left-hand panel fencing gun tower and protractor (pointer was attached to the left of the gunner’s seat on the overhead support towers). Most of the gun firing range — 13.8 thousand meters. The structure of the trigger gun included electric trigger and manual (mechanical) descent. Electric trigger lever was placed on the handle of the handwheel lifting gear lever on the descent — on the left panel fencing. The coaxial machine gun fire carried out by the same electric trigger lever. Switching on / off electric trigger switches on the instrument produced electric trigger gunner.
Second DTM machine gun of 7.62 mm was placed in a ball mount on the right side of the upper frontal hull plates of the T-34-85. Machine gun system provided corners vertical lay in the range of -6 to +16 degree horizontal angles — 12 degrees in the sector. When shooting this gun used optical telescopic sight PPU-8T. When firing a machine gun from a frontal unaffected place was 13 meters. Gun ammunition consisted of 55 — 60 rounds, machine guns DTM — 1890 rounds (30 discs). In addition, the military branch was laying: AK-47 7.62 mm (supplied with 300 rounds of ammunition, 10 shops), 20 hand grenades F-1, 26-mm flare gun (20 rounds of signal).
Allowance of ammunition
To fire the gun used unitary shots with subsequent rounds: boneheaded armor-piercing tracer BR-365 has a ballistic tip; ostrogolovy BR-365K; Subcaliber armor-piercing tracer BR-365P; also solidbody fragmentation grenade 0-365K with a reduced and a full charge. Armor-piercing tracer had an initial velocity of 895 m / s, a fragmentation grenade on a full charge — 900 m / s and at a reduced charge — 600 m / s. Blank range at a target height of 2 meters using armor-piercing projectile — 900-950 meters, armor-piercing sabot tracer — 1100 meters.
Summary racking installation consisting of 12 shots (O-365K), located in a niche of the tower. Homutikovye stacking, 8 shots, located 4 shots (BR-365 or BR-365K) — on the right side of the hull in the fighting compartment, 2 shots (BR-365P) — the corners of walls in the fighting compartment, 2 shots (BR-365P) — in front of the crew compartment on the right. The other 35 shots (24 O-365K, 10 BR-365 or BR-365K and 1 BR-365P) were placed in six boxes in the fighting compartment on the old days.
Wheels of machine guns were placed in the spec. clusters: in front of the machine gunner on the front seat head-sheet — 15 pcs, on the right side of the body to the right of the machine gunner seat — 7 units to the left of the driver’s seat at the bottom of the hull — 5 pcs, sitting in front of the loader on the right wall of the tower — 4 pcs. Hand grenades F-1 and the fuses in the bags were placed on the left side in the laying nests.
Ammunition for AK-47 (180 pieces), equipped with a 6 stores were located: in the spec. the bag on the right side of the tower — 5 stores; cover on the machine in a special pocket — 1 store. Other cartridges (120 pcs.) In a regular fit capping at the discretion of the crew. 6 signal cartridges were in spec. bag, left the sight TSH on the left side of the tower, the other 14 rounds in capping located at the discretion of the crew on the occupation of the fighting compartment.
The hull and turret
Armor protection — protivosnaryadnaya, differentiated. The design of the hull and turret in comparison with the T-34-85 standard in 1944 remained without changes. Housing tank welded from rolled and cast armor width of 20 mm and 45 mm with separate bolts. Cast tower with Weld in the roof, mounted on the hull of the tank with a ball bearing. Maximum thickness in the frontal part of — 90 mm. The tank T-34-85 standard established in 1960 towers with improved ventilation system of the crew compartment. 2-install exhaust fans smashed. With all of this one fan mounted above the cut breech gun in the front part of the roof, does the exhaust, and the second, mounted in the rear section of the roof of the tower — the delivery. This placement has allowed fans to increment the efficiency of the crew compartment purge and eliminate the passage of gases produced during the combustion of gunpowder through jobs crew. The upper aft hull plates for making smoke screen installed two smoke bombs BDSH-5 with a reset and an electronic ignition system (from the commander). In the stowed position (in the case of 2-installation of additional fuel drums to be installed on spec. Mounts on the upper aft sheet) smoke bombs to strengthen the upper cut-sheet before the additional tank with oil (on some machines then set the third extra tank capacity of 90 l.).
The engine and fuel system
On tanks T-34-85 standard was set in 1960 500-horsepower (at engine speed of 1800 r / min) diesel engine B2-34M or V34M-11. Starting the engine was performed using a 15-horsepower electric starter ST-700 (priority startup) or compressed air (alternate method) stored in the 2-cylinder air volume of 10 l .. To facilitate the launch of low temperatures in the criteria used nozzle heater with a water-tube boiler, which is included in the cooling system, and a heater for heating the air that enters the engine cylinders. The heater was attached to the bulkhead of the engine compartment on the bracket. Apart from the nozzle heater in the heating system, radiators were heating oil in both oil tanks, electrical equipment (electrical wiring and candle lamps), and pipelines. The heating system provide training for start-up diesel engine cooling water heating, as part of the oil in the tanks. In addition, to facilitate the start of the motor at low temperatures used device that removes oil from the frozen oil line, the supply of it is pumped to the oil pump.
In the fuel system were 8 fuel tanks placed inside the body and integrated into 3 groups: a group of feed tanks, a group of right-wing and left-side tanks. The total capacity of the internal tank — 545 l .. On the right side of the tank was equipped with two additional external fuel tank 90 liters. each. External fuel tanks in the fuel system were not included. On the sloping rear plate fastened two barrels with a capacity of 200 liters. any. The composition of the fuel system was included cistern, which was located on the partition of the engine compartment on the right side of the body and is used to drain through a special pipe fuel injection pump housing. In the spare parts of the tank went compact charging unit MSA-3, packed in the transport position in an iron box, secured on the outside of the left side of the inclined housing. In store stroke of the T-34-85 standard in 1960 on the highway on the inner (main) fuel tanks — 300-400 km on dirt roads — 320 km.
The cooling system of the motor — forced, liquid, closed type. Any radiator core was cooling surface 53 meters. Capacity of the cooling system after the installation of a heating system (constant inclusion in the system) with the fuel injection heater was 95 liters. To reduce the time of preparation for the launch motor at low temperatures in the cooling system of a filler neck. Burning liquid is poured into the mouth of this, came specifically to the head and the engine block zarubashechnoe place, th e speeding up its heat.
Air cleaning system
The system uses two air-cleaning air cleaner VTI-3 combined type filled ejection automatic removal of dust from the first-stage dust collector. Ejectors are connected to dust collector installed in the engine exhaust pipe. Air cleaner consisted of a housing unit with cyclone dust collector, lid and cover with 3 cassettes of wire spun.
Circulation combined (splash and pressure) lubrication system engine with dry sump (oil applied MT-16p) consisted of: three-section gear pump oil, 2-oil tanks, oil-wire slotted filter «Kimaf» surge tank, tubular oil cooler , maslozakachivayuschego pump MOHP-2 electric, temperature gauge, pressure gauge and piping. Between the engine and the oil tanks on each side were the water radiators included in the system cools. Oil heating, cooling coming out of the engine oil, fastened with 2 screws to the posts of the left radiator hoses. In the conditions of low temperature oil cooler with a special line (busy in the spare parts) of the lubrication system is turned off. The oil in this case received in the equalizing tank, specifically, thereafter — the tanks.
Total charging capacity throughout the oil system T-34-85 standard in 1960 was 100 l .. Each oil tank consists of 38 liters. oil. The lubrication system had a nozzle heater to warm up the oil before starting the engine at low ambient temperatures and special radiators, placed with oil in the tanks. On the left side of the T-34-85 standard in 1960 had an external 90-liter oil tank, which has no connection to the engine lubrication system.
Gearbox and chassis
Units and components of the chassis and the box was not significantly different from the T-34-85 standard in 1944. Manual tank consists of a multi-plate clutch head dry friction (steel on steel), four-, or five-speed box, 2-on-board multi-plate clutch with floating, band brake, having cast-iron lining, and 2-gear-row side gear. Box in the lower half of the crankcase drain valve had to drain the oil. Between the tapered roller bearing of the drive shaft and gearbox adapter bushing apart a seal slinger. The outflow of lubricant at the head of the shaft bearings and oil seals prevented resilient sealing rings.
In the chassis of T-34-85 1960 standard personal use spring suspension, components of which were placed inside the hull. Suspension of the first track roller, which is located in the department of management, enclosing a special guard. Suspension rollers 2 — 4 was placed in special mines obliquely. Caterpillar tracks consisted of a 2-krupnozvenchatyh tracks, 10 track roller having an outer depreciation, 2-swivel castors filled track adjusters and 2-engage the drive wheels raised bed. The machine is mounted on road wheels 2-types with cast or stamped discs with bulky external rubber tires.
Electrical equipment of the tank was carried out by a single-circuit (emergency lighting used by-wire system). System voltage — 24-29 V (BCH and the starter circuit to trigger relays) and 12 (other users). The main source of electrical power is a 1.5-kilowatt generator G-731 relay-regulator RRT-30. Subsidiary — 4 batteries 6STEN-140M, which is connected between the series-parallel, with total capacity of 256 and 280 amp-hours, respectively. In front of the slanted sides of the hull behind the headlamp exterior lighting installed on the bracket signal C-58. On the right cut-sheet tilt mounted light ambient light, which has an infrared filter FG-100. The left headlight equipped with a nozzle svetomaskirovochnoy FG-102. Apart from the rear position lamp GTS-64, there was a similar position lamp placed on the tower, which was located near the light FG-126. To connect the compact charging unit MOHP-3 and a portable lamp in the rear of the chassis has been installed outside household outlet.
In the turret of a tank used for outdoor radio station R-123, and for internal communications — tank intercom P-124. For communication with the commander of the troops had socket. At the command vehicle, installed radio 9RS and SSR-F, as tank intercom TPU ZBis-F. To power the radio stations were established batteries. Charging BATTERY performed using a standalone charger unit which receives engine L-3/2.
The performance properties of the T-34-85 standard in 1960:
Combat weight — 32.5 — 33 tons;
Crew — 5 persons;
Overall length — 8100 mm;
Body length — 6100 mm;
Width — 3,000 mm;
Height — 2700 mm;
Ground clearance — 400 mm;
— Gun S-53 85 mm;
— two machine guns DTM 7.62 mm;
— 56 shots;
— 1953 cartridge;
— telescopic sight TSH-16;
— machine gun telescopic sight PPU-8T;
forehead towers — 90 mm;
board towers — 75 mm;
head-case — 45 mm;
board housing — 45 mm;
roof — 16-20 mm;
feed bottom — 40 mm;
feed top — 45 mm;
Front page bottom — 20 mm;
back sheet of the bottom — 13 mm;
— B-2-34, 12-cylinder, diesel, liquid-cooled, 500 hp at 1700 revolutions per minute; tank capacity — 550 liters.;
— a manual 5-speed manual gear change (4 forward, 1 reverse), final drives, clutches;
Chassis (on board):
5-twin rollers (diameter 830 mm), rear and front guiding the drive wheel; caterpillars — melkozvenchatye, iron, engagement ridge, 72 truck in each track;
on the highway — 54 km h;
in store down the highway — 290-300 km;
cross country — 25 km h;
turn on a dirt road in store — 220-250 km;
The rise — 35 degrees;
Descent — 40 degrees;
Wall height — 0.73 m;
Width of the trench — 2.50 m;
Fording depth — 1.30 m;
— intercom TPU-47;
— radio 10-RT-26E.