In Russian the Russian Federation, following the 1931 sniper weapon developed in the main on the basis of self-loading rifles, the tests were run sniper rifles options such as: self-loading rifles Degtyareva (sample 1930), Rukavishnikova (sample 1938), Tokarev (SVT- 40) Automatic rifle Simon (ABC-P6). But, because of their own shortcomings, they did not reach to the level of accuracy and reliability of the Mosin rifle reference years 1891-1930. Because in 1931, Russian sniper were armed with first production sniper rifle Mosin reference years 1891-1930. with an eye to Fri
From the regular standard Sniper different version of the rifle lowest tolerances in manufacturing, the best treatment of the barrel, bolt handles the configuration and installation of the sniper scope. First data standards rifles were equipped with a sight of the brand TP, which is quite fast was replaced by an improved sight of the EP, and by 1941 there was sight PU designed for rifles SVT.
This rifle, like any other rifle had, as their strengths and weaknesses. The shortcomings of this system revealed a sniper already in the first years of operation, because the rifle is constantly modified. But, despite the positive properties such as the abolition of the ballistics, the act device reliability, simplicity of the device, much vitality barrel and slide, remove a number of flaws and failed. In 1930, the rifle has been seriously upgraded (adopted plate holder for the patrons, the cutoff-reflector is divided into two parts, namushnike became part of the gun barrel, facilitated lozhevyh rings), and after this upgrade a number of shortcomings moved to put into service in 1931, a sniper rifle . In the 30-40’s gunsmiths realized that the sniper rifle should unite within itself all the best features of military and hunting guns. Gun spetsy concluded that the major part of such a rifle as the barrel, trigger, the bed, the sight and other details must be designed specifically.
Recognizable lexicographer VE Markevich wrote in 1940: Hit shooting in the main depends on the arrow, guns and ammunition. To the modern sniper rifle imposed the following requirements:
1. large kuchnoboynost
2. utter reliability acts
3. Rifle has to be designed for the cartridges consisting armed army
4. the opportunity to lead a more accurate fire at moving small single target
5. better maneuverability properties
6. rate — not lower than the normal magazine rifle
7. system is easy and cheap to manufacture, usually a cheap and repair
8. better accuracy (ranging, reconciliation fight at a distance of up to 1000 m, ranging from the smallest)
Such major … of the rifle as the barrel, sights, bed, descent, and other details must be skillfully designed. Barrel taken from regular military rifle was in service, selecting the plants more kuchnoboynye copies.
In orthoptic … (dioptric) sight on a sniper rifle must be optical (telescopic) sight. The multiplicity of tubes from 2.5 to 4.5 times more suited for sniping. A very large multiplicity difficult aiming, especially when shooting at movement and at one point appearing targets. The multiplicity of 6 and is more suitable in the main only for shooting immobile targets. Also, the optical sight should have, like the through sight, set vertically and horizontally.
The trigger mechanism is of paramount importance for marksmanship. It is not good when the descent is not a bad sniping impossible. The descent should not seek large hard you are not required to have a very long course and a free swing.
How to clear all the mentioned properties owned triggers new modern rifles of military systems designs. Because of this with a decent selection of shutter problems should not occur.
Also on the accuracy greatly influences the bed rifle. Gunsmith and designers hunting guns, the event is perfectly understandable. The stock sniper rifles should be stronger than a hunting lodge but handiness should be similar. Stock length also depends on the thickness of odezhki criterion for different weather and time of year, because the butt to do variable-length wood with detachable straps allow to adjust the length of the stock. Neck lodge should be a pistol shape with scales it allows tighter hold a rifle with his right hand. The fore-end should be a longish rifle with the forearm is more convenient to appeal especially in the winter. Better to make a box of walnut wood, such lodge more tenacious and actually did not dampen.
So … how the main part of the serial rifle selected, the rifle can not be cheap. If installed on a new rifle scopes newest lodge fly and a trigger mechanism, in general, the new instrument will be almost completely satisfy Fri 8. (VE Markevich. «Sniping and sniper rifles»).
But all these proposals have not been implemented.
Although without their sniper rifle reference years 1891-1930 was honestly Finnish foynu 1940 and the entire Second World War.
Perfectly matched serial rifle ammunition gives groups of 10 shots subsequent patterning: the 100-meter radius of a circle enclosing all holes (R100), is 3 cm and 200 meters respectively 7.5 cm, at 300 meters, 15.5 cm, 400 meters — 18 cm by 500 meters — 25 cm by 600 meters — 35 cm accuracy on the results will be even greater with the motivated or sniper bullets. Excellent pristrelennaya and collated rifle provides defeat from the first shot to the head figures of 300 m, chest pieces — up to 500 m, half-length figures — up to 600 m, the growth figures — up to 700 m At the same effective range of fire is up to 600 m (according to Instructions on small business).
First sniper scopes for rifles Mosin commissioned by the German factories «Zeiss». But since the early 30s has been adjusted issue its own sights PT (telescopic sight) arr. 1930. Sights PT provided a 4-fold increase in dioptric adjustment of the length of the sight was 270 mm. PT specifically fastened to the receiver that is not allowed to use open sights. In 1931, PT had been replaced by a new sight labeled AM (rifle sights) arr. 1931 but this sight is not one hundred percent fit the necessary requirements.
Sniper rifle Mosin reference 1891/1930 with a telescopic sight VP
7.62mm sniper rifle shoplifting arr. 1891/30 years. with PU scope
In 1936, a new and increasingly common sight of a cheap PE (Emelyanov sight) with a 4.2 fold increase. Specially manufactured by PE huge lateral strengthening allows fixing it on the side of the receiver. PE have also been installed at a small party ABC-36 (automatic rifles Simon)
Around 1941, the Mosin rifle also has a telescopic sight mounted launchers which was used for the sniper modification of CBT (Tokarev self-loading rifle). The sight OPA is a very usual in the production of a cheap and technological scope of wartime. Multiplicity of PU was a little 3.5 x but for the successful conduct of the war sniper at a distance of 500-600 meters it was enough. PU installed on the rifle with vertical base bracket Kochetova. Weight sight with bracket was 270 g. The grid is a T-shaped mark (sighting stump and side smoothing the thread). Width of hemp fibers and is the 2000th, and the gap between the threads — 7000th allowing the use of the formula to find the distance to the thousandth goal. The main disadvantage was its placement PU specifically the arrow above the barrel had to put his chin on the comb of the butt that was quite uncomfortable.
For firing rifle was used in the main cartridge 7.62 x 54, the construction of Colonel N. Rogovtseva, which entered service coupled with a rifle Mosin. The cartridge was subjected to multiple upgrades. In 1908, the blunt pointed bullet changed, the initial velocity of the bullet headed for the newest 865 m / s, at the time, like an old slug it amounted to only 660 m / s. In dalneshem lead core was replaced by an iron, in 1930, to the cartridge were taken languid bullet «D» (sample 1930) and armor-piercing bullet B-30, and in 1932 received an armor-piercing incendiary bullet B-32 and sighting-incendiary bullet PP; still later to a cartridge designed bimetal bush instead of brass. Russian rifle cartridges of 7.62 mm differed significant penetrating ability, good accuracy, flatness of the line of motion and were one of the best rounds of ammunition of this type. Serial rifle cartridges manufactured by Russian industry allowed to lead a fairly accurate aiming a sniper shooting, which allowed the fire to solve most of the problems.