Not enough people know that the Russian torpedo boats of the 2nd World War represented a huge floats of seaplanes.
August 18, 1919 in 3 hours and 45 minutes over Kronstadt appeared unidentified aircraft. The ships broke through the air-raid warning. In fact, nothing new for our sailors did not — English and Finnish aircraft based at 20-40 km from Kronstadt on the Karelian Isthmus and almost all summer in 1919 raided the ships and the city, though without much of success.
But in 4 hours and 20 minutes from the destroyer, «Gabriel» was seen by two speedboats, and almost immediately there was an explosion at the harbor wall. This torpedo boats English, held by «Gabriel», exploded, hitting the dock.
In response, sailors from the destroyer first shot of 100-mm guns smashed to pieces near the boat. Meanwhile, two more boats entering the harbor to Central, walked one — to the training ship «Memory of Azov,» the other — to Rogatka Ust-Channel (the entrance to the dock of Peter I). Issued torpedoes first boat blew «Memory of Azov,» the second blew the battleship «Andrew.» At the same time, the boat fired machine guns at the Court of the harbor wall. When leaving the harbor both boats in 4 hours 25 minutes destroyers were sunk by the fire, «Gabriel.» So ended the raid British torpedo boats, which entered the history of the war entitled plainclothes Kronstadt up call.
June 13, 1929 AN Tupolev began construction of a new planing boats ANT-5 with 2 533 mm torpedoes. Tests led authorities in ecstasy: on such speeds could not even dream boat of other states.
Floating torpedo tube
Note, this was not the first use of the English torpedo boats in the Gulf. June 17, 1919 cruiser «Oleg» was anchored in Tolbukhina lighthouse protected 2-destroyers and 2-guard vessels. The boat went up almost point-blank to the cruiser and fired a torpedo. The cruiser sank. Just realize how stood guard at the Reds man-of-war’s man, if neither the cruiser nor guarding the courts no one saw of days with good visibility and a suitable boat. After the explosion opened fire on a chaotic «British submarine» that man-of-war’s man dreamed.
Where did the British boats, moving from the non-descript for long speed of 37 knots (68.5 km / h)? British engineers have been able to combine in a boat two inventions: a special shelf on the bottom — redan and powerful internal combustion engine, 250 hp Thanks redanu reduced area of contact with the bottom of the water, and the means and the resistance during the ship. Reda boat has not sailed — he seems to be getting out of the water and slid along it at high speed, with an emphasis on water surface only Reda ledge and flat aft end.
So Makar, in 1915, the British designed a small high-speed torpedo boat, which at the time was called «floating torpedo tubes.»
Russian admirals are a victim of their propaganda. Enjoy the western experience did not allow the belief that our boats — the best.
From the outset, the British command was considering torpedo boats just as subversive weapon. British admirals meant to use as a carrier torpedo boats light cruisers. Themselves torpedo boats to be used to attack enemy ships in their bases. Accordingly, the boats were very malehankih: length of 12.2 meters and a displacement of 4.25 m
Putting normal (tubular) torpedo tube on the boat itself was unreal. Because planing boats fired torpedoes … backwards. In this case, the torpedo was ejected from feed chute did not nose and tail. At the time of release of the torpedo cut one engine, and it began to catch up with the boat. The boat, which at the time volley had to go at a speed of about 20 knots (37 km / h), but not less than 17 knots (31.5 km / h), abruptly turns away and kept the initial direction of the torpedo, immediately taking a predetermined depth and increasing the speed to complete. It is necessary to state that the torpedo accuracy of such apparatus is significantly lower than that of the tubular.
In boats made Tupolev seen poluaviatsionnoe origin. This lining of duralumin, and the shape of the body, and reminding them float seaplane, and a small, flattened laterally superstructure.
The revolutionary boat
September 17, 1919 based on the Revolutionary Military Council of the Baltic Fleet Inspection Act raised from the bottom in Kronstadt British torpedo boat turned to the Revolutionary Military Council with a request to order the immediate construction of our plants speedboats British type.
Question been considered very rapidly, and already 25 September 1919 in the Revolutionary Military Council, SMC said that «in the absence of a special type of device, so far not produced in Russia, the construction of a series of similar boats in the current time, of course, is not feasible.» There the matter then ended.
But here in 1922 and became interested in planing boats «Ostekhbyuro» Beqauri. At his insistence, February 7, 1923 The main maritime technical and business management of the People’s Commissariat for Maritime Affairs sent a letter to TsAGI «due to be a need for the Navy to hydroplane, the tactical tasks of which: 150 km area acts, the speed of 100 km / h, the one adopted machine gun and two 45-cm mines Whitehead, length 5553 mm, weight 802 kg. «
By the way, VI Beqauri, not much hope of TsAGI and Tupolev, made secure and in 1924 ordered the French company «Pikker» skimming torpedo boat. But for various reasons the construction of torpedo boats abroad and did not come true.
But the Tupolev zealously took up the case. The small radius of the new torpedo boat and its seaworthiness bad one at that time was not disturbed. It was assumed that the new gliders will be placed on the cruisers. On the «Profintern» and «Red Ukraine» was supposed to do for that extra thudding davits.
The database planing boats ANT-3 was laid float seaplane. The top of the float, intensely affecting the strength of the design, run back to the boat Tupolev. Instead of the upper deck at their was a cool curved convex surface on which a man hard to resist, even when the boat is stationary. When the boat was on the move, to get out of its conning tower was fatally insecure — wet slippery surface cast off absolutely everything that fell on it (unfortunately, but ice in winter criteria boats frosting in the above-water part). When, during the war in the torpedo boats of the type T-5 had to transport the troops, the people were put in single file in the gutter torpedo, more than they had nowhere to stay. Possessing comparable bolshennymi supplies buoyancy, these boats actually could not carry, because they do not have space to accommodate cargo.
Unsuccessful and was borrowed from the British torpedo boats torpedo design. Small boat speed at which it could release their torpedoes, was 17 knots. At the least go and stop the boat could not give a torpedo salvo, because it would mean suicide for him — the inevitable torpedo hit.
March 6, 1927 launch of ANT-3, and later received the title of «first-born», sent by rail from Moscow to Sevastopol, where it was successfully launched. From April 30 to July 16 of the same year, the ANT-3 passed the tests.
On the basis of the ANT-3 was created boat ANT-4 that has developed at the test speed of 47.3 knots (87.6 km / h). By type of ANT-4 was launched serial creation of torpedo boats, received the title of W-4. They were built in Leningrad plant them. Marty (last Admiralty Shipyard). Price boat was 200 thousand rubles. Boats equipped with W-4 with 2 petrol engines, «Wright Typhoon» supplied from the United States. Armament consisted of boats 2-flute type of torpedo tubes for 450-mm torpedo standard 1912, 1st 7.62-mm machine gun and smoke generation equipment. Whole Plant them. Marty in Leningrad was built 84 boats W-4.
Torpedo boat D-3
Torpedo boat ELCO
Torpedo boat D-5
Torpedo boat S-boat Schnellboot
Torpedo boat A-1 «Vosper»
The most high-spirited in the world
Meanwhile, June 13, 1929 at TsAGI Tupolev began construction of a new aluminum boat gliding ANT-5, armed with 2 533 mm torpedoes. From April to November 1933 boat passed factory tests in Sevastopol, and from November 22 to December — the municipal tests. Tests ANT-5 led authorities almost ecstasy — a boat with torpedoes developed speed 58 knots (107.3 km / h), and no torpedoes — 65.3 knots (120.3 km / h). About those speeds could not even dream boat of other states.
Plant. Marty, starting with V series (the first four series — it launches W-4), defected to the creation of G-5 (the so-called serial boats ANT-5). Later, G-5, and began to build in the factory number 532 in Kerch, and with the beginning of the war the factory number 532 was evacuated to Tyumen, and there is a factory number 639 also started the construction of boats of G-5. Total built 321 serial cutter G-5 9 series (from VI to XII, including the XI-bis).
Torpedoes have been all series prototype with two 533-mm torpedo flute devices. But the machine gun armament is constantly changing. So, boats VI-IX series had two 7.62-mm machine gun air YES. Subsequent series had two 7.62-mm machine guns ShKAS aircraft, characterized by larger rate. Since 1941, the boats are equipped with one or two 12.7-mm machine guns ANC.
Tupolev and Nekrasov (managing specific experimental design teams for gliders) were not satisfied at # G-5, and in 1933 proposed a draft «leader of the torpedo boats of G-6.» According to the draft displacement boats had to be 70 tons Eight engines GAM-34 to 830 hp should ensure that the speed up to 42 knots (77.7 km / h). The boat could not give a volley of six 533-mm torpedoes, three of which were launched from the stern torpedo tubes flute type, and three — from a rotary three-tube torpedo placed on the deck of the boat. The artillery armament consisted of a 45-mm automatic cannon 21K, 20-mm gun «type of aircraft» and a 7.62-mm machine guns. It is seen that the beginning of the construction of the boat (1934), and rotary torpedo tubes, and a 20-mm cannon «aircraft type» existed only in the imagination of designers.
Tupolev torpedo boats can operate in sea state up to 2 points, and stay in the sea — up to 3 points. The bad seaworthiness manifested first in the pouring bridge boat even with the insignificance of excitement and, namely, the heavy splashing on the open top of a very low wheelhouse, obstructed the work of the team boats. Derivative of seaworthiness was Tupolev’s boats and autonomy — their design range could never be promised because depended not so much on the supplies of fuel, as the weather. Storm conditions at sea are rarely comparable, but the freshest breeze, accompanied by the excitement of 3-4 points, a phenomenon that can be said, the usual. Because each output Tupolev torpedo boats in the sea bordered with a fatal risk without any connection with combat operations boats.
Rhetorical question: why then in the USSR were built hundreds of gliding torpedo boats? All the matter in the Russian admirals for whom English Grand Fleet was constant headache. They seriously thought that the British Admiralty to act in 1920-1930’s as well as in Sevastopol in 1854, either in Alexandria in 1882 m. In other words, the British battleships in a calm and clear weather suited to Kronstadt or Sevastopol, and the Japanese battleships — to Vladivostok will be the anchor and carried on the battle «Gosta regulations.»
And then it will fly to the enemy armada 10s the most rapid in the world of motor torpedo boats type SH-4 and G-5. With all of this will be part of their radio-controlled. The equipment for such boats had been created in the «Ostekhbyuro» under control Beqauri.
In October 1937, there have been a great teaching using radio controlled boats. When the compound depicting the enemy squadron appeared in the western part of the Gulf of Finland, more than 50 radio-controlled boats, breaking through the smoke screens, streamed from 3 sides by the enemy ships and stormed their torpedoes. Following the teachings of radio-controlled boats Division received the highest score of command.
We go our own method
Meanwhile, the Soviet Union was the only leading maritime nation that built torpedo boats Redan type. United Kingdom, Germany, the U.S. and other countries defected to the construction of sea-going torpedo boats keel. These boats were inferior Reda speed in calm weather, but much superior to them in rough 3-4 score. Keel boats carrying more massive artillery and torpedoes.
The advantage of keel boats on the Redan was of course during the war years of 1921-1933 the east coast of the United States, which led the government to the Yankees … monarch Bacchus. Bacchus, of course, defeated, and the government was forced to cancel shameful «prohibition». An important role was played in the final of the war speedboats Office «Elko», which delivered whiskey from Cuba and the Bahamas. Another issue is that the same company was building boats for the Coast Guard.
On the ability of keel boats can be judged from the fact that the launch of «Scott-Paine’s» length of 70 feet (21.3 m), armed with 4 53-cm torpedo tubes and 4 12.7mm machine guns , passed from Britain to the United States under its own power and September 5, 1939 was officially welcomed to New York. By referring to his company «Elko» began the general construction of torpedo boats.
By the way, 60 boats of the «Elko» was delivered under the Lend-Lease to the USSR, where they received an index of A-3. On the basis of A-3 in 1950, we had created frequent Russian Navy torpedo boat — Project 183.
Germans with a keel
It is necessary to see that in Germany, almost bound hand and foot Versailles contract and shrouded economic crisis, could in 1920 to conduct tests Reda and keel boats. According to test results was made concrete conclusion — do just keel boat. Monopolist in the production of motor torpedo boats was the company «Lührss.»
During the war, the German boats operated freely in the freshest weather across the North Sea. Based in Sebastopol and Dvuyakornaya Bay (near Feodosia), the German torpedo boats operated around the Black Sea. First our admirals did not believe the reports that the German torpedo boats operating in the area of Poti. Meet our German torpedo boats and constantly running in favor of the latter. In the process of fighting the Black Sea Fleet in 1942-1944 nor a German torpedo boat was sunk in the sea.
Flying over water
Dot the «i». Tupolev — professional aircraft designer, but what should not have taken for their cause? What is or may be aware — under torpedo boats to spend more, and in 1930 in the middle of Competitive aircraft designers was a tough fight. Let’s pay attention to one more fact. Construction of boats we had no classified. Soaring above the water gliders were used in full Russian propaganda. The population is constantly beheld torpedo boats Tupolev in illustrated magazines, on countless posters, newsreels. Pioneers in the voluntary-involuntary priuchivali make models Reda torpedo boats.
In the end, our admirals are a victim of their propaganda. Officially, it was believed that the Russian boats the best in the world and there is no point of attention given to foreign experience. And yet agents of German firm «Lührss» from 1920’s «tongue hanging out» to find yourself customers. Customers of their keel boats were Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Spain, and even China.
In the 1920-1930’s of the Germans just sharing secrets with Russian officers in the field of tank development, aviation, artillery, toxic substances, etc. But we did not lift a finger to acquire at least one «Lührss.»