They do not publish the martial roar, they do not shine polished surface, are not decorated with embossed emblems and plumes — and quite often generally hidden under jackets. But now, without this armor, nondescript in appearance, is simply unimaginable to send into battle fighter or to ensure the safety of VIP-persons. Body armor — odezhka that predutverzhdaet penetration into the body of the bullet and how to protecting people from the shots. It is made from materials that dissipate the energy of the bullet and destroy it, for example, clay or iron plates and Kevlar.
In the confrontation and damaging parts of the SIS (means of personal body armor) advantage is always the first. After all, if the construction of the shell and the energy transferred to it, subject to change, and augmented services for greater efficiency and power, the armor, which also improved, continues to bear for themselves vulnerable people, which, unfortunately, impossible to upgrade.
The spread of firearms, its implementation in the military, and dramatically increase the power of affecting parts have become a prerequisite that the armor and armor out of the consumer, since the bullets they ceased to be a barrier, and only loaded with their own masters. But the results of Inkerman battle in 1854, in which the Russian infantry was shot as targets at a shooting range, have become a prerequisite in order that military leaders have reflected not only on the configuration of the classic strategy of war, and on the protection of fighter. After all, a fighter from the deadly metal protected only broadcloth uniform. This provision is of no concern as long as the fight is an exchange of musket volleys and the next melee. But the emergence of high-velocity artillery, which deluged the field contractions fragmentation grenades and shrapnel, rapid-fire rifles, machine guns and later led to that loss armies Straseni increased.
To the lives of fighter generals treated differently. Some respected and safeguarded them, some believed that death in battle for a real man is respectable, but for some ordinary soldiers were expendable. But in spite of different things, they all came together in the worldview that big loss not win the battle, or will lead to defeat. The most vulnerable were infantry battalions of soldiers going to attack first, and the sapper company, also operating at the forefront, as specifically focusing most of their enemy fire. In connection with this, and had the idea to find a defense of these fighters.
The first battles on the field tried to return the shield. In Russia, in 1886, passed the tests of iron shields designs Colonel Fisher. They had special windows for firing. But they were not effective due to the small thickness — a bullet fired from a modern rifle, just shoot through the shield.
The other project was more promising — on the battlefield began vorachivatsya cuirass (armor). Fortunately, this idea was in front of our eyes, because at the turn of the XIX-XX century. Breastplate was part of the ceremonial uniform fighter cuirassier regiments. It turned out that the usual Breastplate of an old standard, the primary purpose of which was to protection from the cool tools, from a distance of several dozen meters withstands 7.62 millimeter bullet fired from a Nagant. Accordingly, a little thickening breastplate (of course to reasonable limits) would protect the soldier and the shots of a massive cannon.
It was the beginning of the revival of cuirasses. Russia for its own army in February 1905 ordered 100 thousand infantry cuirasses from the company «Simone Geslyuen & Co.» (France). But the acquired product was inapplicable. Russia turned out to be reliable means of protection. Among them are the creators of the best-known is Lieutenant Colonel AA Chemerzin, breastplates are made from various iron alloys its development. This professional person no doubt can be called by Pope Russian body armor.
In the Central Military municipal historical archive is stored sewn into one of the cases published typographically brochure entitled «Catalogue of shells, invented by Lt. Col. AA Chemerzinym.» It lists the following information: «Weight shells: 11/2 pounds (1 pound — 409.5 grams) — the lightest, 8 pounds — very languid. Inconspicuously under the clothes. Carapace provided against bullets. Shell, having a weight of 8 pounds is not punched 3-line military rifle. Carapace close: heart, stomach, lungs, both sides, back and spine against the heart and lungs. neprobivaemostyu each shell in the presence of the buyer checked fire. «
In the «Catalogue» are a few acts of protective armor tests that were conducted in 1905-1907. In one of the acts stated: «In the town of Oranienbaum June 11, 1905 in the presence of HIS MAJESTY Pravitelskogo Sudar Ruler performed firing a machine-gun company. According carapace, produced from an alloy invented by Colonel Chemerzinym, 8 machine guns fired from a distance of 300 paces. 36 Bullets hit the shell. It was not broken, it also was not there and cracks. During the test, was the variable composition of the school shooting. «
In addition, the shells were tested in the reserve of the Metropolitan Police, in its order they were made. According to him shots were fired from a distance of 15 paces. The act stated that the shells «were impenetrable, and bullet fragments were not given. First batch was made satisfactory.»
Commission Act provision of the St. Petersburg Metropolitan Police has following record: «During the test, the following results were obtained: in the time of the shooting in the chest armor weighing 4 pounds 75 spools (spool is equal to 4.26 g) and the dorsal carapace weighing 5 pounds 18 spools, which were fitted by a narrow silk cloth covering the breasts, hips, tummy and back, the bullet hit through matter, deformed and do on the shell recess, but not penetrate such, remaining between the shell and the matter, with the fragments of the bullets would not fly out. «
Shield armor that society works «Sormovo» offered during the First World War.
In Russia, the breastplate have acquired enormous popularity to the beginning of the First World War. They had been provided with the metropolitan police — for protection against bullets and knives revolutionary criminals. Several thousand were sent to the army. Breastplate nestled relations (under the clothes) despite the higher price (1.5 — 8 thousand) and was intrigued by civilians, those who are afraid of armed robberies. How annoying would it sounds, the first demand for these models were civilian body armor and the first prerequisite of fraudsters take advantage of this demand. Promising that their proposed product is indestructible even a machine gun, they sold breastplates that do not withstand the test.
Russian infantry broneschit. Found near Leningrad. These shields were made in Russia during the First World War in 1916
In World War I, together with cuirasses huge widespread broneschity that have shown efficacy in a small Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905, which were revised for improved performance bulletproof. On land co mbat acts have acquired positional in nature, and war itself everywhere has become a «fortress.» The most practical application of the shield was a simple device — a metal rectangular sheet width of 7 mm with stand and loopholes for rifles (outside shield itself resembled broneschitok Maxim machine gun). First, the shield of this design was intended to fight in defense: he was placed on the parapet of the trench for stationary observer (s). How data protection have become widespread, shown by the fact that the use of shields after the war secured by military regulations. For example, a «Manual for Military and engineering for the Red Army infantry,» which entered into force in September 1939, has identified the introduction of portable defense shield and illustrated the method of its use — in the illustration to the text of rectangular panel measuring 45 by 40 cm portrayed dug into the parapet to rifle loopholes. The combat experience of 1914-1918 proved so successful that the portable shields used during the Finnish-Soviet War of 1939-1940 and the initial period of the Great Patriotic War.
During the First World War, breastplates, and similar remedies were used not only Russia, and other countries. Check in practice has shown both advantages and disadvantages of these types of protection. Certainly, it also protects the body and the relevant principal organs. But resistance breastplates directly dependent on the thickness. Light and narrow fully protected from large fragments and bullets, and thicker due to its own weight is not allowed to wage war.
Metal breastplate CH-38
Found a relatively successful compromise in 1938, when the Red Army were armed with first experimental metal breastplate CH-38 (CH-1). This bib protects only the chest, stomach and groin fighter. Benefit in protecting the back was likely increase the thickness of sheet iron overload without fighter. But all the feeble hand of the solutions were identified during the Finnish company, in connection with which in 1941 started the development of Chest CH-42 (CH-2). The creators of the breastplate armor was the laboratory of the Institute of Metals under the Koryukova.
Metal breastplate CH-42
Metal breastplate consisted of a 2-3-mm plates — top and bottom. This solution was used, because in the whole bib fighter could not bend over or sit down. Such a «shell» fighters, usually worn on the jacket without sleeves, which was an additional shock absorber. The soldiers used the quilted jackets, even despite the fact that the bib had a special on the inside lining. But there were times when the breastplate worn over the top or even on top of camouflage uniforms. CH-42 protected from debris, gunfire (at a distance of 100 meters), but did not comply with shots from a machine gun or rifle. First iron breastplates were equipped ShISBr RVGK (Assault of the engineering brigade reserve of the Supreme Command). This protection is used on the toughest sections: in the street fighting or taking massive fortifications.
But an evaluation of the effectiveness of such a bib front-line soldiers was the most controversial — of been enticed to complete rejection. But after analyzing combat data path of «experts», it is revealed following phenomenon: the bib appreciated in parts of the assault, «who took» great town, and part of the exciting field fortifications they received negative reviews. «Armour» defended the chest from shrapnel and bullets, until the fighter was running or walking, and during the melee, because it was needed in the battles on the streets of the city. With all of this in the criteria field engineers-attack aircraft, usually moved on their bellies. In this case, a metal breastplate was unnecessary hindrance. In parts who were leading the fighting in sparsely populated areas bibs at first battalion moved to warehouses, and later on the brigade.
From the memoirs of soldiers, «Sergeant Lazarev, bursting forth, ran to the German dugout. Meet him popped Nazi officer, the discharge point-blank in the chest stormtrooper full clip gun, but the bullets did not take a brave man. Lazarev struck on the head with the butt of the officer. He reloaded the machine and went into the dugout. laid there a few fascists who just went crazy from what he saw: a Russian officer fired at close range, but he escaped unhurt. » Similar cases in the process was a lot of fighting and the Germans, who were taken prisoner, many times asked to explain the reason «indestructibility of the Russian fighter.» Had to demonstrate the plate.
CH-46 entered service in 1946 and was the last iron breastplate. Thickness of the CH-46 increment to 5 mm, it is possible to resist the turn of the MR-40 or PCA at a distance of 25 meters. For added convenience, the model consisted of 3 parts.
Almost all the bibs, cuirasses after the war were put to the warehouses. Only a small part of them was transferred to the division created by the Head Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR.
First Russian body armor.
But the global practice showed that the need to make effective armor protection for ordinary soldiers and protect them on the battlefield by shrapnel and bullets. First appeared in the traditional bulletproof vests the U.S. Marines during the Korean War and was a special armor plates sewn into the vest. First Russian body armor was created in Aviation Materials (All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials). The development of this protective equipment started in 1954, and in 1957 he was accepted to supply the Armed Forces of the USSR under the symbol 6B1. Then did about one and a half thousand copies, and laid them on the warehouses. It was decided that the overall creation of body armor deployed only in the event of the coming of the threat period.
Body armor 6B1
Protective composition of body armor was a hexagonal plates which were made of duralumin alloy and placed mosaic. They were placed layers of nylon fabric, batting and lining. These vests protected from shrapnel and bullets 7,62, which were issued to 50 meters with a sub-machine gun (PPP or PCA).
First, the war in Afghanistan has received several of these vests in units of the 40th Army.
But not an easy protection design, which consists of a huge number of hexagonal pieces with special facets that ensure their overlap, significant weight and a low level of protection for a long time buried in the attempt, as the idea of the creation of the Soviet Union in personal armor.
In the 50’s — 60’s in Aviation Materials made two bulletproof vest with weight 8 — 12 kg: two-layer metal body armor and bulletproof vest from duralumin alloy (front layer is made of an alloy of V96TS1 and rear — AMg6). Around 1000 standard issued body armor were oriented in 6 IN. In addition to special order the KGB did two bulletproof vests f or NS Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, before his visit to Indonesia.
About flak jackets in our country remembered 10 years later. The pioneer was the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, which was faced with a problem — try to make Russian vests or buy imported from other countries. The problem with foreign currency in the country have become a prerequisite in favor of the choice of their own development. With the request to create the same police body armor vest of TIG (Switzerland) management of Ministry of Internal Affairs has asked the Institute of Steel. The Ministry has also submitted a standard body armor.
Body armor ZHZT-71M
In the Institute of Steel in a year made and released the first police body armor, received the title of ZHZT-71. Due to its construction the use of titanium alloy durable protection level substantially exceeds the level of active customer. On the basis of body armor made some modifications in the set which ZHZT-71M, also ZHZL-74 body armor designed against the cool tools.
Body armor ZHZL-74
At that time, body armor ZHZT-71M was unique because it defended from pistol and bullets. With all of this kinetic energy exceeds the energy of bullets bullets fired from a TT pistol almost 6 times.
For a given body armor had to develop special technology. rolling of titanium, which has provided a combination of superior strength and toughness needed for the implementation of the protective properties of titanium armor. Also, in this body armor used quite a powerful shock absorber (thickness approximately 20 mm). This suspension was intended to reduce the level of so-called zapregradnyh injuries, in other words, no penetration injuries in the armor. These vests have used the so referred to as «scaly» or «background» layout of pieces of armor. By the shortcomings of the scheme include the large number of joints, overlaps, increasing the possibility of «podnyra» bullet or knife penetration. To reduce this possibility in ZHZT-71M armor elements in a row riveted together polupodvizhno, and their upper edges were special. projections traps that prevent the penetration of a knife or a bullet between the rows. In ZHZL-74 This objective is achieved by the fact that the items made from specially developed for bulletproof vests duralumin alloy, placed in two layers. With all of this, «flakes» in the layers were aimed in different directions. This ensures the highest reliability of protection against all kinds of cool tools. Now the design of data protection vests may seem imperfect and difficult. But it was not only a huge lack of experience and lack of development of body armor protection materials used now, and with significantly excessive demands for protection from the cool tools, as desired area of protection.
By the mid-70s equipped many of these vests the Interior Ministry. Until the mid-80’s, they were virtually the only means of protection officers.
Institute of Steel from the mid-’70s was charged a large group of KGB special forces equipment, which became known as the coming of the «Alpha». We can say that none of the other customers as a valuable body armor did not put in an emerging form of body armor, as employees of a private agency. Such words as «fines» in the lexicon of these units were not. At a critical moment no matter what little thing could be fatal, because the care with which new products are practiced together personal body armor, up to the present time is respect. Sophisticated ergonomic, medical tests, rigorous assessment of characteristics of operating in various unexpected situations, an unlimited number of tests the protective properties of different variants of armor — were the norm here.
The first generation of military body armor.
As for the military jackets, here before the end of the 70s did not work out of the search step. The main reasons were the lack of light bronemateriaov and stringent requirements of the military. All previous models of Russian and imported from other countries as the basis of body armor used ballistic nylon or durable nylon. How annoying would it sounds, these materials, in the best case, provided the average level of ballistic resistance, and they have not able to provide the highest protection.
In 1979, the limited contingent of Russian troops was introduced to Afghanistan. Actions since have shown that troops had to provide assistance to the peace population and fight with armed rebels. In Afghanistan hastily sent the first series of the new body armor 6B2. This vest made in 1978 at the Research Institute of Steel with TSNIISHP (Central Institute of garment industry). It used constructive solutions vest ZHZT-71M, which was developed at the request of the Interior Ministry. In 1981, the supply of body armor made by the Armed Forces of the USSR under the title F-81 (GRAU index — 6B2). Protective vest composition consisted of titanium plates RCE-80-605 having a thickness of 1,25 mm (19 in the breast, including the region of the heart to the plate 3 in two rows of two layers), and ballistic screen tridtsatisloynogo aramid fabric TSVM-G. Weighing 4.8 kg, body armor provided protection from pistol bullets and shrapnel. Withstand bullets discharged from long-barreled guns he could not (bullets 7,62 x39 protective composition punched at a distance of 400-600 m). By the way, a curious fact. This vest bag is made of nylon fabric and fasteners used for prestige while «Velcro». It appropriated body armor «foreign» look and gave rise to speculation that these vests have acquired abroad — not in the GDR, not in the Czech Republic, if not quite in a capitalist country.
Body armor M-81 (6B2)
In the course of the war, it became clear that the F-81 body armor may not provide the best protection of manpower. In this regard, the troops began to arrive 6B3TM body armor. Protective vests packet consisted of 25 plates (13 chest, 12 on the back) ADU-605T-83 made of titanium alloy VT-23 (thickness 6.5 mm) and 30-layer fabric packages of TVSM-G. Since the weight was 12 pounds of body armor, bullet-proof vests changed it 6B3TM-01 have differentiated protection (chest — from small guns back — from pistol bullets and shrapnel.) The design of the vest 6B3TM-01 was used 13 plates ADU-605T-83 (VT-23 alloy, thickness 6.5 mm) at the front, and 12 LPs ADU-605-80 (VT-14 alloy, thickness 1.25 mm) at the rear; 30-layer fabric packages from TVSM-G on both sides. Weight vest itself was about 8 pounds.
Body armor consisted of a front and back, which are connected by the textile clasp the shoulder area and belt-fastening pryazhechnym created to adjust for growth. Of the product is made up of covers, with those at their tissue protective pockets and pockets blocks with armor elements. On the covers are placed on the outside pockets: front — breast pocket and pockets f or 4 shops on the back — for cape and 4 grenades.
Body armor 6B3TM-01
A fascinating feature of the body armor 6B3TM (6B3TM-01) will be that used in the manufacture of titanium armor, which has differentiated thickness hardness. Raznotverdost achieved in the alloy of titanium unique processing technology with the introduction of HDTV.
Body armor 6B4-01
In 1985, data vests were made under the designation F-85T (6B3TM) and M-85T-01 (6B3TM-01).
In 1984, the series launched the creation of a bulletproof vest 6B4. In 1985, the body armor into service under the designation F-85K. 6B4 body armor, unlike 6B3 had a crock, not titanium plate. Through the use of a clay piece of protective body armor 6B4 provides protection from armor-piercing and incendiary bullets with heat-treated core.
6B4 body armor provides radial protection from shrapnel and bullets, but its mass is dependent on the modification was between 10 and 15 kg. In this regard, whether by 6B3 body armor, body armor made light option — 6B4-01 (F-85K-01) having a differentiated protection (chest — from shrapnel and bullets shooting guns back — from debris and pistol bullets).
In a series of bullet-proof vests 6B4 included several modifications, differing in the number of protective plates: 6B4-O — to 16 on both sides, weight 10.5 kg 6B4-P — 20 on both sides, weight 12.2 kg 6B4-S — 30, front and rear 26, weight 15.6 kg, 01-6B4 and 6B4-O-01-L — rear plates 12, weight 7.6 kg and 8.7 kg, respectively. Protective elements — 30 layers of fabric and clay plates TVSM HELL 14.20.00.000. In vests 6B4-01 on the back plate are used ADU-605-80 (titanium alloy VT-14) with a width of 1.25 mm.
6B4 body armor consists of a 2-parts connected to the textile clasp the shoulder area and is equipped with a belt-pryazhechnym mount allows you to adjust the size for growth.
Before and backrest are made up of body armor covers, which are located in the tissue protective pocket (back) pocket (front) and blocks pockets with armor elements. This vest is equipped with 2 spare elements of body armor. In contrast, in a case 6B3TM product 6B4 no breast pocket and has an elongated rib section, which provides protection for the bottom of the abdomen. In later models have a ballistic collar.
Terminates in a number of jackets of the first generation of Russian production is a series of 6B5 which in 1985 made the Institute of Steel. To do this, the institute held a series of research projects to determine the typical standardized means of personal body armor. Series 6B5 body armor was based on previously developed and in-service products. It included 19 different versions that purpose, the level and area of protection. The hallmark of this series has a modular construction principle of protection. In other words, any next model could be formed by using a unified defense units. As protective components used modules based on tissue structures, ceramics, steel and titanium.
Body armor 6B5-19
6B5 body armor in 1986, have adopted under the designation F-86. 6B5 was a case in which were located myagenkie ballistic shields (cloth TSVM-G), and the so-called circuit boards to accommodate armor plates. In the composition of the protective armor panels used in the following types: titanium ADU-605-80-605T and ADA-83, iron and clay 14.05 HELL HELL 14.20.00.000.
Cases of early models of body armor made of nylon fabric and had a different color gray-green or greenish color. There were also games with covers made of cotton fabric with camouflage pattern (bi-color units for the Interior Ministry troops and the KGB, the tri-color — for the Marine Corps and Navy). 6B5 body armor camouflage pattern was produced from «Flora» after the adoption of the Combined Arms coloring.
6B5 body armor in the coloring of «Flora»
Body armor 6B5 series consists of front and back, which are connected to the textile clasp the shoulder area and have a belt-pryazhechnoe mount to adjust the size for growth. Both parts of the products are made up of covers, with those at their tissue protective pockets, pockets blocks and armor elements. When using a water-repellent protective covers for pockets of water remain after exposure to defensive stats. 6B5 body armor has its own complete with two water-repellent cover for protective pockets, two spare armor elements and bag. All models are equipped ballistic collar. Cover the vest has pockets on the outside for parts of automatic weapons and stores. In the area of the shoulders are rollers that prevent slipping gun belt.
The main modifications 6B5 series:
6B5 and 6B5-11 — protects the back and chest from bullets guns APS, PM and debris. Protective package — 30 layers of fabric TSVM-G. Weight — 2.7 and 3.0 kg respectively.
6B5 and 6B5-1-12 — protects the back and chest from bullets APS pistols, TT, PM, PSM and fragments, a reinforced ballistic resistance. Protective package — 30 layers TSVM-G and titanium plate ADU-605-80 (thickness — 1.25 mm). Weight — 4.7 and 5.0 kg, respectively.
6B5 and 6B5-4-15 — protects the back and chest from bullets and shrapnel small guns. Protective package — a clay plate ADU 14.20.00.000 (22 front and 15 rear) and 30-layer fabric package of TSVM-G. Weight — 11.8 and 12.2 kg, respectively.
6B5 and 6B5-5-16 — protects breasts — from shrapnel and bullets shooting the gun, back — from pistol bullets and shrapnel. Protective package: breast — 8 parts titanium RCE-83-605T (6.5 mm thickness) from 3 to 5 parts titanium RCE-80-605 (1.25 mm thickness) and 30-ply fabric sack from TSVM-G; back — 7 titanium parts ADU-605-80 (thickness 1.25 mm) and 30-layer fabric package of TSVM-G. Weight — 6.7 and 7.5 kg, respectively.
6B5 and 6B5-6-17 — protects breasts — from shrapnel and bullets shooting the gun, back — from pistol bullets and shrapnel. Protective package: chest — 8 iron parts HELL 14.05. (Thickness: 3.8 (4.3) mm), from 3 to 5 parts titanium RCE-80-605 (1.25 mm thickness) and 30-ply fabric sack from TSVM-G; spin — 7 parts titanium-ADU 605 -80 (thickness 1.25 mm) and 30-ply fabric sack from TSVM-G. Weight — 6.7 and 7.5 kg, respectively.
6B5 and 6B5-7-18 — protects breasts — from shrapnel and bullets shooting the gun, back — from pistol bullets and shrapnel. Protective package: chest — titanium plate ADU-605T-83 (thickness 6.5 mm) and 30-layer fabric package of TSVM-G, back — 30-layer fabric package of TSVM-G. Weight — 6.8 and 7.7 kg, respectively.
6B5 and 6B5-8-19 — provides protection breasts — from shrapnel and bullets of small tools (the third-class protection of Defense of the Russian Federatio n), back — the bullet pistols APS, PM and debris. Protective package: breast — 6 plates of steel ROV 14.05 (thickness: 3.8 (4.3) mm), and 5 to 7 of titanium plates RCE-80-605 (1.25 mm thickness) and 30-ply fabric sack from TSVM -G, back — 30-layer fabric package of TSVM-G. Weight — 5.7 and 5.9 kg, respectively.
Body armor, 6B5 and 6B5-11-12 provide ballistic protection. These vests designed for calculations of missile systems, artillery, self-propelled artillery, support units and personnel staffs, etc.
Body armor 6B5-13 6B5-14-6B5 15 provides radial protection from bullets and were intended for the personnel of the units that make short-term special. puzzles (assault and the similar).
Body armor 6B5-16 6B5-17 6B5-18-6B5 19 provide differentiated protection and intended for members of the military airborne units, NE Navy and Marine Corps.
After the adoption of a series of bullet-proof vests 6B5na supply, other body armor made earlier in the supply decided to throw in the army to complete the change. But body armor 6B3TM-01 in the army remained in the 90s, and was used extensively in local conflicts and wars in the area of the former Soviet Union. 6B5 series was produced until 1998, and removed from the supply only in 2000, but remained in the army until complete substitution of modern body armor. Body armor series «The Hive» in different versions to this day are in parts.
Brand new country — the new body armor.
In the early 90’s the development of personal protective equipment for the armed forces stalled, funding a huge number of promising projects has been curtailed. But rampant crime has become the impetus for the development and production of means of personal body armor for personal parties. During these years, the demand for them greatly superior to the offer because in Russia began to appear the companies offering these products. The number of such companies in 3 years has passed for 50 pieces. The apparent simplicity of body armor has become a prerequisite for the fact that in this area has got lots of amateurs, and from time to time, and outright charlatans. The quality of body armor for all that had fallen sharply. Specialists Institute of Steel, taking on the assessment of one of these «body armor» have learned that as a protective element with regular food aluminum.
In this regard, in 1995 in the field of personal body armor made a significant step — there GOST 50744-95, which regulated and systematization of those. requirements for bullet-proof vests.
Even in these countries languishing for years, progress was not in place, and the army needed new body armor. There was such a thing as a basic set of personal equipment (BKIE), in which a significant role was played by body armor. First BKIE «Barmitsa» included a draft «pick up» — a new military body armor, replacing the series «The Hive.»
Body armor 6B13
In the framework of the «pick up» the body armor made 6B11, 6B12, 6B13, which in 1999 adopted it. These vests, unlike the USSR, developed and implemented a huge number of organizations. In addition, they have very different features. Body armor, carried or carried Institute of Steel SA’s Breastplate, NPF Tehinkom, CVM Armokom.
Upgraded vest 6B13-mount system UMTBS pouches or MOLLE.
6B11 is a bulletproof vest 2nd class protection at a mass of 5 kg. 6B12 — 4th degree of protection for the chest, the second — for the back. Weight 8 kg of body armor. 6B13 provides radial protection 4th grade, at a mass of 11 kg.
Body armor series «visor» consists of chest and spinal sections that are connected to the shoulder area and fasteners piled in the waist belt-pryazhechnym connection. Fasteners allow you to adjust the size of the vest on growth. Connect sections of the belt buckle is made of pile and a belt with a hook and carabiner. Section vests consist of the external covers. Placed inside their protective shields fabric with outside pockets, which are located in the armor elements (one on the back section and two in the chest.) The rib section snaschena convertible apron providing protection groin. The downside of both sections of the armed dampers, which provide lower contusion impact. The damper is designed makarom that provides natural ventilation podzhiletnogo place. Body armor to equip collar, consisting of 2-parts. The collar protects the neck from shrapnel. The collar connected piled buckles that allow you to adjust their position. Adjusting units of body armor series «pick up» compatible with the similar units vest transport 6SH92-4, which is designed to accommodate parts of the outfit worn by members of the personal equipment of ammunition specialties of the Navy Marine Corps, Navy, CB, etc.
Regardless of body armor to equip Quick-modified fabric, iron or organic-ceramic panel «Granite-4.» Protective package has a structure that eliminates the ricocheting bullet approach at an angle of 30 to 40 degrees. Bulletproof vests also protect the neck and shoulders of a serviceman. The top of the vest has a water-repellent impregnation, protective camouflage coloring, and does not support combustion. All materials used in the manufacture of body armor brutal resistant fluids, explosion-proof, non-flammable, non-toxic, does not irritate the skin at a particular contact. Body armor, this series can be used in all weather zones. Retain their protective performance in range of temperatures from — 50 ° C to 50 ° C, and upon exposure to water.
Russian vests XXI century.
First century ushered in a new step in the development of basic sets of personal equipment — the project «Barmitsa-2.» In 2004, as part of the project to supply was adopted UPC (military protective kit) «Permian-O» under the designation 6B21, 6B22. This kit is intended for protection against small military weapon, the radial protection from splinters of shells, grenades, mines, protects from local zabronevyh contusion injuries, environmental impact, causes thermal and mechanical damage. In addition, the Permian-O provides a disguise, placement and subsequent transportation of ammunition, arms and other parts needed for the conduct of hostilities. The structure of military protective kit «Permian-O» comes:
— Jacket and pants or protective clothing;
-vest universal transport 6SH92;
-raid satchel 6SH106 also other elements of equipment;
-The kit further includes — summer and winter camouflage suits.
UPC «Permian-O» with a vest 6SH92
Irrespective of the base of a suit are protective pants and jacket or suit. These elements are protected from small fragments (1 g mass of the fragments, at a speed of 140 meters per second) is also an open flame (for a minimum of 10 seconds). Helmet and vest are made on the first level of protection. Able to protect from the cool guns, also fragments weighing 1 gram at a speed of 540 meters per second. To protect ZHVO (actually the principal organs) from destruction by bullets body armor is enhanced clay or metal armor panels third (modified 6B21-1, 6B22-1) or the fourth level of protection (modified 2-6B21, 6B22-2).
Used in the «Breastplate-4A» and «Breastplate-4K» armor panels fourth level of protection are ergonomically shaped composite structures. They are made on the basis of aramid fabric, polymer binder and aluminum oxide or silicon carbide («Breastplate-4A» or «Breastplate-4K», respectively).
The protective characteristics of the combat protective kit do not change at temperatures from -40 to +40 C is also retained after long exposure to water (wet snow, rain, etc.). The outer fabric pieces UPC and raid backpack are water-repellent impregnation.
UPC «Permian-O» is available in 6 main versions: 6B21, 6B21-1, 6B21-2, 6B22, 6B22-1, 6B22-2.
Set has significant weight but it should be remembered that it consists of 20 parts. Weight Ballistic kit (modified 6B21, 6B22) is 8.5 pounds, UPC reinforced broneblokom third level — 11 pounds; UPC 4th level — 11 pounds.
On the basis of the UPC made protective camouflage sniper set, which contains additional elements camouflage — camouflage mask, a set of camouflage capes, masking tape for the rifle, and more.
UPC «Permian-O» was tested in the North Caucasus during the fighting. There he showed in all, a good result. Small flaws in the main concerned ergonomics parts kit.
Body armor 6B23
In the class of NPP in 2003 developed a general military body armor, adopted in 2004 to supply the designation 6B23.
Body armor consists of a 2-sections (chest and back). Between them they are connected among themselves by means of slots in the shoulder area and the outer part of the belt clip and a flapper valve on the belt. Between the layers of shielding are pockets, which can be located in the fabric, iron, or a clay bar. Body armor has a collar to protect the neck. Belt clip on the side of having a protective screens that protect the sides. The inside of the sections has a ventilation-damping system in the form of vertical stripes polyethylene foam provides a reduced contusion (zapregradnogo) effects as well podzhiletnogo ventilation space. This vest can be combined with traffic vest 6SH104 ili6Sh92.
Body armor can be equipped with armor plates of different levels of protection. Breast — 2nd level of protection (tissue), 3 levels of protection (iron), 4 levels of protection (clay). Dorsal — iron or tissue.
Depending on the type of armor plates weight of body armor varies. Body armor, protection class 2 having chest and back, weighs 3.6 kg, with a protection class of 3 chest and back 2 class — about 7.4 kg, with a protection class of 4 chest and back 2 class — 6.5 kg, with a class 4 thorax and Grade 3 back — 10.2 kg.
6B23 body armor was so successful design that the Defense Ministry has taken it as a primary means of personal body armor for personnel of the combat units of the Navy Marine Corps, Navy, SW, etc. But rearmament of the Russian army, as usual, comes slowly and the troops get new body armor in limited quantities. As in the past have value in the supply of special forces, Marines, Navy.
The subsequent step of development is the development and implementation of a basic set of personal equipment «Warrior,» which effectively «Barmitsa» 8-10 times.
But not everyone can use the combined arms vests. For example, body armor 6B23 will deliver a combat vehicle crew disadvantage, as it makes it difficult leaving the tank or infantry fighting vehicles through hatches in the very same car he restrict movement. And the crew of these machines need to be protected. First, from the damaging parts, caused by ingestion of missile systems, missiles, grenades, also from the heat.
Security set 6B15 «Cowboy»
For the crews of armored vehicles in 2003 to supply the accepted protective set of «Cowboy» (6B15).
At the current time protection package «Cowboy» released two organizations: the company Armokom and Steel Institute.
The kit includes:
-Ballistic body armor (the first type of protection);
-flame retardant suit (Research Institute of Steel) or overall (Armokom);
-Ballistic plate on a tank headset (Armokom) or a tank headset TS-5 (Research Institute of Steel).
Weight of the entire set of 6 pounds (Research Institute of Steel) or 6.5 pounds (Armokom).
Body armor is composed of separable sections (chest and spinal), and turn-down collar. On the cover of the vest posted evacuation device and costly pockets created to house a staff of equipment.
Set protects the groin, shoulder and neck. It can be placed and transported standard weapons and other items that are part of the military equipment of this type of troops. «Cowboy» ensures that multi-member crew of armored vehicles obligations for 2-days.
Bronezaschitnye elements are made of ballistic fabric for which the base is used as a high strength fiber Armus with Russian oil-, water-repellent treatment. Exterior body armor covers, coveralls and lining are made of flame resistant fabric and have camouflage coloring. Resistance to open flame is 10-15 seconds. Security features sets are stored in atmospheric precipitation, after a 4-fold decontamination, disinfection, decontamination, and after the impact of special fluids and lubricants used in the operation of armored vehicles. The temperature range is from -50 ° C to 50 ° C.
«Cowboy» is a camouflage coloring, also increases the telltale signs of equipment crews of armored vehicles out of combat equipment.
Security set 6B25
Later, the company was presented Armokom the future development kit 6B15 — set 6B25dlya crews of armored vehicles and artillery, missile troops. In general, this set of repeats 6B15, but it includes transport vest, pants and winter jacket and fire retardant fabrics.
Also comes in a set of electrical heating means which is a foot insoles, provides surface temperature of 40-45 ° C.
Team composition is followed by the category of servicemen who did not necessarily wear body armor combined arms languid. Body armor, 6B17, 6B18 have adopted in 1999, and «Strawberry-O» (6B24) in 2001.
6B17 body armor — unintended vehicle and is designed to protect against fragments and pistol bullets of soldiers who do the work in the protection of objects of type headquarters commandant, patrolling, and special-purpose cargo tracking in urban criteria. 6B17 is a common defense of the first level and second-level cloth armor panels. Weight 4 kg of body armor.
Nestled wearing body armor designed to be worn 6B18 junior officers. By weight, and the level of protection he repeats 6B17.
Bronekomplekt 6B24 «Strawberry-O»
Bronekomplekt «Strawberry-O» (6B24) is designed to be worn senior crew members. Set is available in summer and winter versions: summer — pants and jacket with small arms (4.5 kg), winter — body armor, winter pants with removable thermal insulator and jacket (5 kg). Safety performance is achieved using ballistic fabrics, which are used for binding pants and jackets. On the back and chest are provided protective armor panels.
In 2008, the above bullet-proof vests were involved in the resonant scandal. Head of Supply Grau (Head Missile and Artillery Directorate) of the Ministry of Defense were purchased for the department at JSC «Artess» about 14 thousand protective clothing in the amount of 203 million rubles. Then it turned out that the body armor of the second class of protection their way with pistol bullets and shrapnel. In the end, the whole lot of body armor set «Artessom» The Ministry of Defence have been found worthless. By decision of the investigation they began to withdraw from the warehouses. This incident was the reason for the initiation of criminal proceedings against General and management company «Artess.»
«NPO Special Materials» in 2002, presented in the state. two tests of body armor for the sailors. In 2003, they were taken to supply under the designation 6B19 and 6B20.
Body armor 6B19
6B19 body armor designed for the Marine Corps and the watch foreign ships battle stations. During the first tests of sailors was immediately assessed the quality of jackets, their improved ergonomics, strength of armor plates (plates failed to break out of SVD rifle bullet LPS at a distance of 50 meters) and covers. The Marines also were pleased with the fruits of trial operation 6B19 body armor. Even despite the fact that they had in their «sweat» on marshbroskah, but all the same had heavier Marines dressed in a full-time body armor. 6B19 design feature is the special rescue system by which hit the water unconscious serviceman utopnet. The system automatically inflates the two cameras and provides turning up human person. NCW is composed of 2-chambers, automatic gas filling systems, the supplies have positive buoyancy of 25 kg.
Body armor 6B20
6B20 body armor designed for combat swimmers of the Navy. 6B20 consists of a 2-key systems (safety systems and buoyancy compensation) are also several sub-systems.
Safety system protects the important principle of the plague cool gun, bullets underwater shooting guns and mechanical damage are likely to occur when the diving operations. The protective body armor system is designed as a cover placed in the chest panel. The design of the hinged system allows you to use it separately from the security module.
Buoyancy compensation system allows you to adjust the value of diver buoyancy at different depths and maintaining the diver at the surface. The system consists of a camera having a buoyancy travyasche-relief valves, air control systems, rigid mounting the back, outside the box, dropping the cargo system, and a hanging system. Depending on the breathing apparatus buoyancy chambers are filled by an autonomous air cylinder or cylinders of the respiratory system through the inflator (buoyancy control device).
Body armor does not melt when exposed to an open flame for 2 seconds and does not support combustion. The materials used in the manufacture, resistant to sea water and oil.
The design of the vest provides the reliability of its fixation on the body of swimmers when jumping into the water from a height of 5 meters with an instrument in the different types of diving and special equipment. In addition, it does not prevent the rise of self-swimmer in an inflatable boat, a platform or a life raft that towered over the water to 30 cm in greatest average time that you want to combat swimmers to overcome the distance of 1 mile underwater with fins with body armor does not exceed the standard time overcome this distance without body armor.
30-year rivalry between the developers and the protection of weapons has led to a kind of equilibrium. But as pointed out by life, it is unlikely it will be a long one. Specific laws of force developers to find ways to increase the arms hitting the power of destruction, and the data path started to get the exact shape.
But the defense is not resting on its laurels. Now naikrupneyshie body armor manufacturers and developers, such as NGOs «Technique» (NIISTU MIA), Steel Research Institute, NGO «Spetsmaterialy» Breastplate Armokom are searching for new protective materials, new defensive structures, learn new principles of personal body armor. All there is reason to think that the expected increase in the power of defeat does not take unawares developers protection.