The idea of creation of small submarines in the period before the First World War of 1914-1918 belonged to the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, which has continued to test the mobile station for torpedo defense of coastal forts. While the Admiralty focussed on the creation of larger displacement submarines, which have the best weapons and seaworthy qualities.
In 1908, in connection with the new requirements of war had begun reconstruction of the Kronstadt fortress. By 1910, Tsar Nicholas II was approved another project of reconstruction of the fort, and supply six submarines designed for the defense of the passages in minefields. March 9, 1910 at a meeting chaired by the Chief of Staff of the Ministry of Defense been reviewed and approved by the major data requirements «small fortress unseaworthy submarines.» It was recommended to them to build a single project. In addition envisaged order 36 torpedoes and floating base.
The seamen, who were present at the meeting, from such «pans» completely distanced themselves, saying the refusal to fund the construction of the Ministry of Marine and forms the crews of ships. But for all that they had agreed to help spice during the construction period, as in the tests. In the upcoming case led electrical part of the Head of Engineering Management (SMI) of the War Ministry.
Preliminary talks were immediately with 2 factories in St. Petersburg — Nevsky and the Baltic, which in the second half of 1910 presented the preliminary designs that are sent for review to the ITC. Captain of the Corps of Engineers of Mechanical NF Fleet Karpov and the ship’s engineer LH Kazin submitted their reviews on the basis of which the best was recognized Nevsky Plant project, which is practically owned, American company «Electric Boat Company,» and precisely known engineer submarines John Holland.
It was here before the Russian-Japanese War (1904 — 1905) started creating a series of submarines «Catfish».
The project, which South American indexation received «27-B» (in several documents of the Ministry of the Sea meets the designation «Type 13»), had a number of innovative technical solutions. For example, a diesel engine intended for a surface course as a source of electric power used nickel alkaline batteries Edison system. These power supplies are lighter, more compact and safer parts of acid were used in the Russian Navy. In addition, unlike the proposed project Baltic factory planned installation of 2-tube devices (not the 1st grid unit system Drzewiecki). Also, the developers want to increment the depth of immersion, with a compressor respective capacity doubled increment of supplies compressed air to use small-sized, it is located in a central office management system.
Spices ITC recommended for developers to use Russian engines. In addition, they reacted with disbelief to the BATT Russian submariners who have not previously used by accepting the application of safeguards in the event of a two-year service life. In its own report, the Ministry of officers MGSH praised the serfs submarines skeptical because these submarines have «limited range …. act like on the surface and underwater. Submarines for the same reasons will have a slow speed and their ability to stay at sea when bad weather criteria is negligible … In connection with the above, their military value is reduced to a minimum — in fact to zero. «
Negotiations between friendship Nevsky Shipyard and SMI were conducted until the spring of 1911. Being explored three options: a 2-option involves the use of diesel engines for good design, and in the 3rd — the submarine was driven by an electric motor. The final choice was made for diesel engines iron foundry and machine factory «Lodvig Nobel» (now «The Russian diesel»), and that satisfies customers and trainees on those. features (in the set and whose weight).
April 2, 1911, the War Department, while continuing to keep, earmarked for the construction of ship only 0.5 million — this amount enough to order only 3 subs at the stated price by the manufacturer 125 thousand rubles for each, 10 torpedoes and shore base ( 40 thousand). A complete set of documentation required to report within 2 months, and finished submarines — to 1 September 1912.
Database designed from 1911 to 1912. but eventually canceled the order, because the parties could not agree on price. Torpedo boats through to Nevsky plant were ordered by JSC boilers, cast iron and machine factories’ GA Lessner, «where they are typical of those. the conditions of the Maritime Office were made Radzivil and on time.
Development of the final design of submarines, «27-A» and preparation for construction took more than a year. Sam manufacturer was able to perform (but not fully) just build buildings. All equipment and machinery needed to order from foreign manufacturers, which in many overseas and also coordinate with the Department of diving Hooke and designers.
On Nevsky Plant preliminary work began March 29, 1911, on the stocks — in late April — early May 1912, after it has been rolled steel. Shipbuilders began work at your own risk, because by that time the SMI has offered to build only one experimental submarine. This approach is motivated by the lack of detailed drawings, as fears of a military fitness and habitability of ships of this type.
After a very acute and long negotiations, the board Friendships Nevsky Plant virtually forced the War Department to sign a contract on the basis of the initial agreement signed October 16, 1912. According to them provided for the discharge of all submarines no later than mid-1913.
Little Submarine, «27-B» has appropriate «hollandsky» silhouette that resembled a submarine «Catfish» and «AG» — spindly, elongated housing, elliptical cross section in the bow smoothly moved into a round midsection and far aft. The main ballast tanks were placed in the extremities is a strong case (aft — 1,67 m, Bow — 4.6 m). Trimming tanks (0.54 m and 0.86 m) located in a sturdy housing, surge (up 1.58 tons) — in the center of buoyancy.
Submarine in filling the ballast tanks sank to the position (combat) situation, trimming tanks used at full dive and get the desired trim, auxiliary used for reimbursement of fuel, cargo, and the difference in specific gravity of water. In addition it allowed to run across an underwater position, without trimming tanks. All t he tanks were emptied pumps or blown by compressed air at least some depth. Water is pumped out of the ballast tanks at a depth of less than 5 m bow were located one above the other tubular rechargeable outside torpedo tubes. The rear cover of the machine have been embedded in the nose bulkhead battery cover. Its size allows you to prepare to fire a torpedo bottom. At the top of the torpedo could only look around Propeller group, and she looked around on the surface. In the compartment was located 192 Edison element as a pair of cylinders with compressed air.
Central and battery compartments divided the second watertight bulkhead. There were deployed central office, in which immersion was going to all the team, monitoring and control system. Forward engine room was located in what were the main engines, is connected to the propeller shaft by a friction clutch, which allowed them to use the rotation of a four bronze screws and battery charging capacity of which was 320 A h batteries recharged for 10 hours at 175V and 150A. Apart from this there were placed, who worked on diesel compressor, bilge pump, with a separate electric motor, a pair of cylinders with compressed air drying systems, and 2 cylinder diesel engines to run. In the 2-cylinder fuel tanks was 260 kg of diesel fuel. Flat watertight bulkhead installed over the top of the housing. With it surfaced deck was created. It housed the silencer, and spare parts.
Above the central station to a strong body riveted cast bronze cutting.
Stationary periscope tube (diameter 13 cm, length 4.3 m) with a strong body was connected to a water-proof seal. For ventilation of both compartments used two five-foot pipe vozduhopoglotiteley located on 2-sides of the cabin. With all of this in the higher part of the time of immersion tube removed, and the holes are battened down with waterproof covers. Horizontal bow rudders were formed on the surface.
On the building housed onboard fins that reduced pitching, also a special folding keel (weight 810 kg) to be used in an emergency situation.
The basis of the housing 40 ring frames were spaced 46 cm apart, not counting the 2-First, where the quad was reduced to 38 cm, the outer skins collected in the double lap. Thickness of the sheet is applied from 3 to 8 mm. For a set of shell and used open-hearth carbon steel having a tensile strength of 56 kg / sq. mm.
The project is four-four-stroke diesel engine of long-term capacity of 50 hp at 500 revolutions per minute and the flow rate of fuel less than 250 g per 1 unit of power per hour, has been developed at the plant Nobel in 1911 on the establishment of the motor has been spent just over a month. The initial version at all it weighed 1300 kg (with handwheel), and the final — 1750 kg. Lock and all 3 engines completed by the spring of 1913. Electric motors were supplied Russian society, «Schuckert & Co.» in St. Petersburg. Long power of 35 hp and 70 hp for one hour at 504 revolutions per minute. The weight of each motor with a rheostat is 1300 kg. A huge part of the devices (starting resistors, electronic control units and fans for them, bilge pumps with electric motors, gear boxes to cylinders for pressure reduction, automatic blow-off valves) has put American company «Electric Boat Company ‘. Society Putilov factories were made torpedo (mine) devices, and the «Universal electricity company» — resistors, distribution boards and lighting equipment.
The stocks at work was renewed in November 1912. Watching were nominated Karpov and casino, but construction was carried out slowly due to the timing of the delivery of equipment breakdowns. In the spring — summer 1913 went on strike many industrial plants, because casting logging handed Gatchina plant Lavrov. By December this year, the buildings were set all engines. In 1914 he received the first ready-cutting and two torpedo tubes. At the same time, from the office «Officine Galileo» (Florence) have periscopes. Submarines to the middle of the year still have not gone the stocks, as the shipbuilder does not even fit in the new period May 15 — June 1.
Seafarers experiencing shortage in submarines since the beginning of the First World War dramatically changed the attitude to the «27-B». Now the Marine general staff insisted on transferring submarines to protect Revel raids in the Baltic Sea, and in the case of labor to mine the central position to strengthen defense Suropskogo passage. GAM without waiting for official approval, which came first in August, gave Nevsky factory outfit for carrying out work around the clock. Timesheet configuration command submarines looked like this: 12 non-commissioned officers and conductors. August 15 submarines have been enrolled in the lists of the fleet by assigning numbers «1», «2» and «3» instead of titles. They were kept in a special purpose division as a team (in the upcoming Division) submarines of the Baltic Sea. Chief of Division, and commander Underwater boat «№ 1» was appointed Lieutenant Nicholas Nordshteyn, submarines «№ 2» and «№ 3» appointed Lieutenant II Riznich and VV Sologub. New commanders previously commanded submarines and submariners were listed opytneyshemi.
Hydraulic and pneumatic test cases first submarines that were launched 3 and August 21 were made afloat, and the third, who came down on Sept. 11 … The designers on the stocks before the war, insisted on carrying out sea trials in the area of Bjork, but now they have been moved on Lake Ladoga, where submarines were delivered by barge. Routine tests were conducted crew, which consisted of five American technicians who were sent to Holland, and five professionals from Russia. Subs «27-B» surprisingly showed excellent navigability property on the surface. In good weather, the Court held much better escorts of their boats and tugs.
The immersion time was 2.5 Minutka (less than expected), the movement underwater, it was noted as a good, but shooting things were not principal — during firing submarine very throws out skyward. Valve caps torpedo missed the water. During the shooting was lost one of the 2-training torpedoes.
The problem has been fixed with the covers, with the assistance Putilovites because for 23 — 29 September, three submarines were commissioned. Admiral NO Essen, commander of the Baltic Fleet, offered to send a battalion to Revel formed under its own power, believing that if the court will be unseaworthy, the fleet they are also not needed. But the marine transportation of general staff insisted on submarines by rail. All three submarines in November 1914 with the equipment and personnel arrived specials. train to Revel. It was assumed that the division will be based on a peninsula in the Bay of Ezel Kilkond, but inspection Rear Admiral AI Nepenin and Captain 1st Rank A. Kolchak Launched submarines has shown that it is better to send to the Baltic port. In Paldiski submarine received mastered the technique and with all this, try to do some kind of base. As a result, operation of such defects have been identified as the whimsical work of diesel engines, main pumps, BATTERY, etc.
In the summer of 1915, Marine General Staff decided to throw subs «№ 1» and «№ 2» for the protection of Arkhangelsk. After bringing the boat in the relative order they are under their own power in the second half of June, fled to Petrograd. To this they spent 25 hours. Nobel factory was carried out repair diesel engines and vessels have been raised on the w / e conveyor housing.
July 9, 1915 the submar ine «№ 1» and «№ 2» came to Vologda, were overwhelmed by barge. In Arkhangelsk Division arrived on August 4, and Riznich wrote, «… once the submarine began hiking to demonstrate.» Submarines to mid-September were located at the mouth of the Northern Dvina. First as a floating base was used steamer «Theodosius of Chernigov,» which is not quite suitable for this purpose. Later was used more applicable «Witte». October 11, 1915 Division and the base under escort cruiser «Basil Lofty» went north. Submariners after the court in Snow White Sea were taken in tow by steamers ran over to them.
After the tug NIGHT MODE October 15 came from the sea and the snow-white throat turned to the Murmansk coast was lost Submarine «№ 2». «Loss» was adopted at the expense of the treasury. The submarine «№ 1» returned to Arkhangelsk and was set on the waterfront.
In the spring of 1916 found a missing submarine. As it turns out, she was thrown out by waves in the lagoon Svyatonoskoy bay. For a whole year it tried to rise, but the Minister of Marine, in the end, put the resolution: «The submarine should be excluded from the lists of the fleet — do not spend money.» Then the boat was lifted some equipment, and the body is left in place. In June 1916, the submarine «№ 1» on the icebreaker «Aysland» («Dezhnev») moved to Oleksandrivsk. Later, she was joined by submarine «Dolphin». Both underwater apparatus advocated either at the pier or at the floating workshop «Xenia». At the request of the captain of the first rank, MS Roshchakovsky, the senior naval officer and a detachment of the Kola district courts Defense Kola Bay’s ability to license the use of boats to patrol the output from the Gulf II Riznich saw that this is unrealistic, since the area has enormous depth, observed the terrible weather conditions and much more. «Dolphin» and the submarine «№ 1» were left for the retention of divers, which were equipped with submarine-type «AG» commissioned for the North. In the spring of 1917, in one of the storms right at the base sank the submarine «№ 1», which was damaged from hitting the standing nearby submarine «Dolphin». In the summer after rising and upcoming repairs in Murmansk submarine boat was recognized as worthless and written off at the port.
The fate of the submarine «№ 3», which is almost the entire 1915 year remained in the Baltic region has developed differently. After repairs, she was moved to Revel and included in the system of defense Moonsund archipelago, but the fighting did not take the role. It was proposed to transfer to the north was canceled at the request of the Expedition special purpose (EPRON), which is engaged in transportation of cargoes for the Serbian army on the Danube. Marine general staff decided to throw the submarine to the South as a moral influence on the Austro-Hungarian naval flotilla. With all of this delivery was headed II Riznich.
In 1916 — 1917 years submarine «№ 3» floating on the Danube River in the arms of EON, later in Galati troop strength of the Danube river flotilla.
After the peace boat hit the Romanian fleet, and later in Hungarian. Efforts sample put it in order, but failed. In 1921, the submarine was handed over to the scrap heap.