In the history of every state has a heroic page, which is a state proud. There are heroic page in the history of Poland. They are connected to the military operation «Zaluzha» — occupied by Polish armed forces of Czechoslovakia, which took place 11 months before the start of the Second World War.
«With the eagerness of hyenas» — these words Winston Churchill praised the behavior of the pre-war Poland, was quick to grab their piece of the doomed in Munich at the mercy of Czechoslovakia. «The heroic traits of the Polish people — summed up the famous British politician — should not make us blind to his folly and ingratitude, who, over the centuries, caused him immense suffering.» Indeed, the reckless ambition of Poles on the eve of the tragedy of 1939 is not limited to the area of Cieszyn. In Warsaw, made plans to rejection of vast territories in the East, and even raved «march on Berlin.»
A brief chronology of events so glorious pages in the history of the Polish state:
February 23, 1938. Beck in talks with Goering Poland declares its readiness to take into account the interests of German in Austria and Poland expressed interest «in the Czech problem»
March 17, 1938. Poland presents an ultimatum to Lithuania with the requirements of a convention guaranteeing the rights of the Polish minority in Lithuania, as well as the abolition of the section of the Lithuanian Constitution, which proclaims the Lithuanian capital Vilnius. (Vilna was illegally seized by the Poles a few years ago and included in the part of Poland).
On the Polish-Lithuanian border, the Polish troops are concentrated. Lithuania has agreed to accept the Polish representative. In case of rejection of the ultimatum within 24 hours of Poles threatened to do the march to occupy Kaunas and Lithuania. The Soviet government through the Polish ambassador in Moscow, recommended not to encroach upon the freedom and independence of Lithuania. Otherwise, it denounces without warning Polish-Soviet non-aggression pact, and in the case of an armed attack on Lithuania to retain the freedom of action. Thanks to this intervention the risk of armed conflict between Poland and Lithuania have been prevented. The Poles have limited their claims to Lithuania by one point — the establishment of diplomatic relations — and refused to armed intervention in Lithuania.
May 1938. The Polish government is concentrating in Tesin multiple connections (three divisions and one brigade of border troops).
August 11, 1938 — In a conversation with Lipski German side expressed understanding of the interest of Poland in the territory of Soviet Ukraine
8-11 September 1938. In response to the Soviet Union expressed readiness to help Czechoslovakia, both against Germany and against Poland in the Polish-Soviet border organized the largest in the history of the reborn Polish state military maneuvers, involving five infantry divisions and one cavalry division, one motorized team, as well as aviation. Advancing from the east, «red» suffered a complete defeat of the «blue». The maneuvers ended in a grand seven-hour parade in Lutsk, who has been personally «supreme leader» Marshal Rydz-Rydz.
September 19, 1938 — Lipski informs Hitler Polish Government’s opinion that Czechoslovakia is an artificial entity and support Hungarian claims to the territory Carpathian Rus
September 20, 1938 — Hitler declares Lipsky, in the case of military conflict between Poland and Czechoslovakia because of the Cieszyn region Reich will take the side of Poland that the line of German interests in Poland completely hands free, he sees the solution to the Jewish problem through emigration to the colonies in agreement with Poland, Hungary and Romania.
And then as the events unfolded with the 1939godu in Poland.
September 21, 1938 — Czechoslovakia, Poland sent a note demanding the solution to the problem of the Polish minority in Cieszyn Silesia.
September 22, 1938 — Polish government urgently informs the denunciation of the Polish-Czechoslovak Treaty on National Minorities, and after a few hours of Czechoslovakia announced an ultimatum to join the Polish lands with the Polish population. On behalf of the so-called «Union of Silesian rebels» in Warsaw was openly deployed in the recruitment of «Cieszyn volunteer corps.» Formed teams of «volunteers» are sent to the Czechoslovak border, where the suit armed provocations and sabotage.
September 23, 1938. The Soviet government warned the Polish government that if the Polish forces, concentrated on the border with Czechoslovakia, invade its borders, the Soviet Union would consider it an act of aggression, and not caused by denounces non-aggression pact with Poland. In the evening of the same day was the reply of the Polish government. His tone was as usual arrogant. It explains that holds some of the military activities only for defensive purposes.
September 24, 1938. The newspaper «Pravda» in 1938. September 24. N264 (7589). on p.5. publishes the article «Polish fascists are preparing a putsch in Cieszyn Silesia.» Later in the night of September 25 in the town near Końskie Trshintsa Poles threw hand grenades and opened fire at home, in which there were Czechoslovak border guards, leaving two buildings burned. After a two-hour battle, the attackers retreated on Polish territory.
Similar clashes took place in the night and in several other places Cieszyn
September 25, 1938. The Poles attacked the railway station Frishtat, fired her and threw grenades.
September 27, 1938. The Polish government has put forward re-claim about the «return» of her Cieszyn region. Throughout the night in almost all areas of the Cieszyn region were heard machine-gun and rifle shooting, grenade explosions, etc. The most bloody clashes as the Polish news agency reported, were observed in the vicinity of Bogumin, Tesin and Jablunkova in towns Bystrica Końskie and Skshechen.
Armed groups «rebels» have repeatedly attacked the Czechoslovak arms depots, the Polish daily aircraft violated the Czechoslovak border. In the newspaper «Pravda» in 1938. September 27. N267 (7592) on 1 page article by «unrestrained arrogance Polish fascists»
September 28, 1938. Armed provocations continue. In the newspaper «Pravda» in 1938. September 28. N268 (7593) at p.5. published the article «Provocations Polish fascists.»
September 29, 1938. Polish diplomats in London and Paris insist on an equal approach to solving the problems of the Sudeten and Cieszyn, Polish and German military agree on the demarcation line troops in the event of an invasion of Czechoslovakia. In the Czech newspaper describes touching scenes «battle of brotherhood» between the German Nazis and Polish nationalists. On the Czechoslovak border post near Grgavy attacked gang of 20 men armed with automatic weapons. The attack was repulsed, the attackers fled to Poland, and one of them being wounded, was taken prisoner. During the interrogation, caught the bandit said that in their squad a lot of Germans living in Poland.
In the night from 29 to 30 September 1938 was signed the infamous Munich Agreement.
September 30, 1938. Prague, Warsaw filed a new ultimatum, which ought to be answered in 24 hours, demanding immediate satisfaction of their claims, which required the immediate transfer of the border region Tesín. The newspaper «Pravda» in 1938. September 30. N270 (7595) at p.5. published an article entitled «Provocations aggressors do not stop. «Incidents» on the borders. «
October 1, 1938. Poland, Czechoslovakia inferior region, where the population of 80 thousand 120 thousand Poles and Czechs. However, the main industrial potential acquisition becomes occupied territory. Businesses located there given at the end of 1938 almost 41% of smelted iron in Poland and almost 47% of steel.
October 2, 1938. Operation «Zaluzha.» Poland occupies Cieszyn Silesia (Teschen district-Frishtat — Bogumin) and some settlements in the territory of present-day Slovakia.
Polish soldiers captured by the Czech checkpoint in Czech-German border, near the pedestrian bridge, which was built in honor of the anniversary of Emperor Franz Joseph in the Czech city of Bogumin. Wyden has not carried by the Czechoslovak border post.
Polish tank 7TR from the third bronebatalona (tank 1st platoon) overcomes the Czechoslovak border fortifications in the area of the Polish-Czechoslovak border. 3rd bronebatalon had tactical sign «Silhouette of a bison in the circle,» which was applied to the turret. But in August 1939, all tactical symbols on the towers have been painted over, as telltale.
Polish forces during the seizure of the Czechoslovak land near the village of Spis Joerg.
Note the Polish soldiers — German weapons, helmets (steel helmets) — German … Just friends … And even ponabrali manners in the Occupied
Armored units of the Polish forces takes the Czech village of Jorg vremyaprovedeniya operations for the annexation of Czechoslovakia land dreaming. On perednemplane — Polish wedge TK-3.
Interesting fate of these territories. After the collapse of Poland Orava and Spis were transferred to Slovakia. After the Second World War, the land was occupied again by the Poles, the Czechoslovak government was forced to accept that. To celebrate, the Poles staged ethnic cleansing against
ethnic Slovaks and Germans. In 1958 the territory of Czechoslovakia were be return. Who are part of Slovakia. — Approx.
October 1938. National triumph in Poland to mark the capture of Cieszyn region. Jozef Beck was awarded the Order of the «White Eagle», moreover, grateful Polish intelligentsia awarded him an honorary doctorate of Warsaw and Lviv University. Polish propaganda breathless with delight. October 9, 1938 «Newspaper
Polska «wrote:» … the open road in front of us to the sovereign, the leading role in this part of Europe in the near future requires great effort and resolve extremely difficult task. «
Handshake Polish Marshal Edward Rydz-Rydz and the German attache Colonel Bogislava background Studnitz on parade «Independence Day» in Warsaw November 11, 1938. Photo is notable that the Polish parade was tied specifically to the capture of Cieszyn Silesia month earlier. At the parade was specially column Těšínské Poles.
From the book of Churchill’s «The Second World War», Volume 1, «Approaching Storm»
«The heroic traits of the Polish people should not force us to close
eyes to his folly and ingratitude, who, over the centuries, caused him immense suffering. In 1919, it was the country that Allied victory after many generations of division and slavery transformed into an independent republic and one of the major European powers. Now, in 1938, because of such a minor issue as Tesín, Poles broke with all my friends in France, in England and in the United States, which returned them to the unified national life and by which they were soon so badly need. We have seen, as now, until they fell reflection might of Germany, they were quick to grab a share in the plunder and ruin of Czechoslovakia. In a moment of crisis for the English and French ambassadors were closed all the doors. They were not allowed even to the Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs. Should be considered a mystery and tragedy of European history that the people of any heroism, some members of which are talented, valiant, charming, permanent exhibits such huge flaws in almost all aspects of his public life. Glory to God in times of rebellion and grief, shame and infamy in times of triumph. Bravest of the brave too often led by a vile of the vile! Yet there have always been two of Poland, one of them fighting for the truth, and other reptiles in infamy. «
Appetite is known, comes with eating. Poles do not have time to celebrate the capture of Cieszyn area, they develop new plans:
December 28, 1938 In an interview counselor of the German Embassy in Poland Rudolf von Shelii with the newly appointed ambassador of Poland in Iran Ya.Karsho-Sedlevskim, the latter says: «The political outlook for the European East is clear. After a few years, Germany will make war with the Soviet Union and Poland will support, voluntarily or involuntarily, in this war Germany. For Poland, it is better to conflict will most definitely be on the side of Germany, as the territorial interests of Poland to the west and the political goals of Poland in the east, especially in the Ukraine, can be provided only by advance made by the Polish-German agreement. He Karshi-Sedlevsky, subordinate its activities as the Polish ambassador in Tehran to this great eastern concept, so as to finally convince and encourage the Persians and Afghans also play an active role in the coming war against the Soviets. «
December 1938. From the report of the 2nd Division (Intelligence Division) Chief of Staff of the Polish Army: «The division of Russia is at the heart of Polish politics in the East … So our possible position will be reduced to the following formula: who will take part in the division. Poland should not remain passive in this great historical moment. The challenge is to prepare well in advance physically and spiritually … The main objective — the weakening and destruction of Russia. » (See Z dziejow stosunkow polsko-radzieckich. Studia i materialy. T. III. Warszawa, 1968, str. 262, 287.)
January 26, 1939. In an interview with the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, the Polish Foreign Minister Jozef Beck, held in Warsaw, said: «Poland claims to Soviet Ukraine and the Black Sea.»
March 4, 1939. Polish command after the prolonged economic, political, and operational research completed the development plan for war against the Soviet Union. «East» («Vskhud»). (See Centralne Archiwum Ministerstwa Spraw Wewnetrznych, R-16/1).
However, here the Poles broke off with another opportunity to re-play the role of a hyena and plunder for free, hiding behind a more powerful neighbor, for her, Poland, lured the opportunity to plunder the rich more than the Soviet neighbor:
March 20, 1939. Poland, Hitler made a proposal: to agree to the inclusion of the German city of Danzig and the creation of extraterritorial corridor, which would be combined with East Prussia, Germany.
March 21, 1939. Ribbentrop in an interview with the Polish ambassador to the newly filed claims against Danzig (Gdansk), as well as the right to build an extraterritorial highway and railway that would connect with East Prussia, Germany.
March 22, 1939. In Poland, announced the launch of the first partial and indirect mobilization (five compounds) in order to provide cover mobilization and concentration of the main forces of the Polish army.
March 24, 1939. The Polish government passed the British government to offer an Anglo-Polish pact.
March 26, 1939. Polish government released a memorandum in which, according to Ribbentrop, «in the form of offhand rejected German proposals regarding the return of Danzig and extraterritorial transport routes through the corridor.» Ambassador Lipski said: «Any further pursuit of the objective of the German plans, and especially on the return of Danzig to the Reich, would mean war with Poland.» Ribbentrop again verbally repeated German demands: an unambiguous return of Danzig, extraterritorial connection with East Prussia, a 25-year non-aggression pact with the guarantee of borders, as well as cooperation in the Slovak question in the form assumed by the neighboring states to protect this area.
March 31, 1939. British Prime Minister H. Chamberlain said the Anglo-French military guarantees for Poland due to the threat of aggression by Germany. As he wrote about it in his memoirs, Churchill: «And now, when all of these benefits and all this aid has been lost and discarded, England, leading the France offers to guarantee the integrity of Poland — the same in Poland, which just six months ago with greed hyenas took part in the robbery and destruction of the Czechoslovak state. «
And what about the Poles responded to the desire of Britain and France to protect them from German aggression and received guarantees? They were again transformed into a greedy hyena! And now sharpening their teeth to snatch a piece of Germany. As pointed out in his book, American explorer Hanson Baldwin, who worked during the war, the military editor of the «New York Times»:
«They were too proud and self-confident, living past. Many Polish soldiers soaked military spirit of the people and their traditional hatred of the Germans, they said, and dreamed of a «march on Berlin.» Their hopes are well reflect the words of the song:
… Dressed in steel and armor
Led by Rydz-Rydz,
We’ll go march to the Rhine … «
What is this madness is over?
September 1, 1939, «decked out in steel and armor» and the slave-Rydz Rydz began to march in the opposite direction to the border with Romania. And less than a month later, Poland disappeared from the map of seven years, along with their ambitions and habits of hyenas. In 1945, she appeared again, paying for their folly six million Poles lives. The blood of six million Polish lives almost 50 years, cools the madness of the Polish government. But nothing lasts forever, and again louder and louder shouts start of the Great Poland «from sea to mozha» and in Polish politics begins to emerge already familiar to all greedy grin hyenas.
PS Fans criticize the Molotov — Ribbentrop Pact. Explain logically, why need this «ulcer»? Or when I had to wait when it will break itself? Yes. Attack on the neighboring states is very poloho, but not in this vsluchae.
— Materials on the Internet
— Flyayshhauer I. Pact. Hitler, Stalin, and the initiative of German diplomacy 1938-1939. Moscow, 1991.
— M. Meltyuhov Soviet-Polish war. Military-political confrontation between 1918 — 1939 years.
— AV Shubin The world on the edge of the abyss. From Global Depression to World War II. 1929-1941. Moscow, 2004.
— D.A.Taras «Operation« Weiss »: The defeat of Poland in September 1939,» Mn. Harvest, 2003, 256 p. ISBN 985-13-1217-7
BLITZ Krieg POLAND. PART 1. File ‘- A natural result!