The most elaborate system of corporal punishment of children, which became a tradition and preserved throughout modern times existed in the UK (see: Chandos, 1984; Gathorne-Hardy, 1977; Gibson, 1978; Raven, 1986).
The first thing encountered English boy in school — it’s brutality and abuse of power on the part of teachers. Particularly sophisticated ritual of corporal punishment, which is called the «smashing» (beating) or «repossession», founded in the famous Eton College in 1440. Some of his teachers, for example, in 1534-1543 head of Eaton’s. Nicholas Yewdall (1504-1556), were real sadists, beating the boys who afforded sexual pleasure. English epigram XVII. reads: «Scratching the student in the pants, a pedant satisfies your own itch».
Links Yewdall were so high that even after he was fired and convicted of sodomy, a few years later, he led the other, Westminster College.
Inmates were flogged for everything. In 1660, when the school children as a means of preventing plague enacted smoking, one of Eton boy whipped «like never in my life,» … for not smoking. At Eton with parents of students in addition to the tuition fees charged by half a guinea to buy rods, regardless of whether their son was subjected to punishment or not.
It should be emphasized that this was not only and not so much the personal inclinations of educators who, as always, were different, but in the general principles of education.
The most famous «stick insect», who led Eton from 1809 to 1834, Dr. John Keith (John Keate) (1773-1852), who was once in one day own flogged with rods 80 (!) Boys, different kind and cheerful disposition, students respected him. Keith was just trying to pick up the weakened discipline, and he succeeded. Many boys are punished by flogging perceived as legitimate retribution for the loss, for what did not fool the teacher, and at the same time — as a feat in front of classmates.
Avoid rods considered bad form. The boys even bragged to each other their scars. Of particular importance was the publicity of punishment. For the older, 17-18-year-old boys humiliation was worse than physical pain. Eton rowing team captain, a tall and strong young man who faced a flogging for abuse of champagne, tearfully pleaded with the director, so he carved his alone, and not under the gaze of the curious crowd of younger boys, for whom he was an authority, and even the government. Director flatly refused, explaining that the public flogging — the main part of the punishment.
The ritual public flogging has been worked out in detail. Each «house» at Eton had its own gallows — wooden blocks with two steps (flogging block). Being punished had to pull the pants and shorts, climb the scaffold, to kneel down on the bottom step and lay down on his stomach on top of the deck. Thus, his ass, cleft between the buttocks, the sensitive inner thighs and even genitals were completely naked from behind and are available for review, and if it is carrying out a spanking teacher will be like, and painful blows with birch twigs. This is evident from the old English engraving of «Spanking at Eton.» In this position, the boy kept the two men whose job was to keep the floors and shirts, while the offender does not receive all allocated strikes.
What are the experiences of this spectacle caused the boys described in detail in the famous Eton poem Algernon Swinburne (1837-1909) «Flogging Charlie Collingwood.» As the Russian translation of the poem is missing, and I is not capable of, restrict brief retelling.
Charlie Collingwood — seventeen year old handsome, tall, broad-shouldered and muscular, and a shock of red hair on his head. He plays well in all sports, but his poems and writings are not given. Therefore, five or even six days a week, he is a victim, and then punish him. For younger boys to see a spanking Charlie Collingwood — a real treat; birch trace on his ass more than the leaves on the tree, nice to see a priest. But Charlie is afraid of nothing. He goes with his pants down, not making a sound. The audience looks from red to red rods director ass student: the scar on his scar, a scar on the rumen. Director are exhausted, but Charlie is no stranger. The rod burns all the more sensitive the white sides of Charlie as a snake crawling birch patterns. At its bare white belly visible red patterns, and between white thighs reopened something hairy. The teacher chooses the most sensitive places, as if Charlie wants to cut into pieces. «Of course, you’re too big for a spanking at your age be flogged ashamed, but while you’re here, I’ll whip you! The boy is never too big to be bullied! «Writhing in pain, Charlie finally cries out,» Oh! «- And younger boys laugh that made the rod still scream the big guy. But the second such fun they will not wait. Teacher gets tired before. Charlie Collingwood rises from the scaffold, red-faced, with matted red hair, crimson flog ass, blue eyes full of tears and a look that says, «I do not care!» Then he pulls his pants and out of the school, surrounded by a crowd of boys who go after their hero and are proud of what they have seen spanking Charlie Collingwood …
Here is everything: Teachers sadism, unconditional obedience and a desperate bravado offense, cruel laughter and simultaneous glorification of the victim, to which each of these boys in their own identified. And above all — tabuiruemy sex …
From the memoirs of former itontsev:
«I was caught in the chapel for the singing of rude, obscene verses to the tune of a psalm and called for punishment to the youngest Master (sort of deputy director. — IK.). You had to take off pants and underwear and kneel down on the block. The two ministers were holding you. You were flogged on his bare ass. All the time I was shaking, white as a sheet of paper, absolutely terrified. Got six strokes as a result of blood appeared. When I went back to class, all shouted, «Where’s the blood, where blood?» I had to lift up the hem of shirt and show the blood spots. «
«Spanking was just a part of life. After evening prayers, the older boys officially summoned you to the Library. Although for me there were no specific misdemeanors, Captain of the House have decided that I am behaving defiantly and deserve a beating. It was extremely painful — a real old-fashioned whipping up blood. «
«I do not remember ever in my life I was so scared than when I was sitting in my room, knowing that I would be spanking. My phage-master said to me in the morning: «I’m afraid that you deserve a beating,» and all day I was expecting this sentence. Being small and frail, I was afraid of especially strong. — «Come down to the Library and wait.» — They made me wait four or five minutes. — «Come on.» — You go and see that issue resolved, no excuses will not save you. Captain House is standing with his stick. — «It is inexcusable, not three times, you turned on the light in his fagmastera. Get out. » — Once again, you have to wait. It was a sophisticated torture. — «Come on!»-And then they beat you with a stick, as if beaten out the carpet. «
«My grandfather and great-grandfather of the same flogged at school, and … on the same scaffold. Given that their high school years separated 29 years, I always thought it funny. Neither my grandfather nor my great-grandfather did not have any regrets or negative feelings about the punishment, then it was a normal part of life. As my grandfather, Birch was a way of «setting of the spirit», although the results might look like in tears, the skin healed in three weeks … «
Remarkable perverse tradition existed in 1179 based in Westminster School. The most famous of its director (he held the post 58 years), Richard Busby (1606-1695) boasted that his own future pereporol 16 bishops of the Church of England, and that only one of his pupils was flogged once. According to Dr. Busby, whipping boy creates a healthy attitude to discipline. By the way, his teaching career began with a scandal: Busby was accused of sexual abuse of a student. In 1743, the famous poet Alexander Pope satirically portrayed him in the poem «The New Dunsiada.» But Busby appreciated «not only for it»: neither one English school could boast of so many famous alumni, as Westminster era Busby (architect Christopher Wren, scientist Robert Hooke, poets John Dryden and Matthew Prior, the philosopher John Locke, and many others). Does not this prove successful spanking? In addition, Busby gathered and presented the school with a rich library.
Traditions Busby carefully preserved. In the spring of 1792 on a wave of liberalism (in the neighboring French revolution took place), a group of students Westminster School two and a half months published the satirical magazine «flagellants». Published nine rooms, a total of one hundred and fifty pages, then the magazine was banned, and its initiator, the future famous Romantic poet Robert Southey (1774-1843), expelled from school.
Two hundred years later, the magazine read Russian writer Igor Pomerantcev, and that’s what he writes (Pomerantcev, 1998):
«Young men in a hurry. I literally hear the creak tirelessly their feathers in the spring 1792. At the end of May. At that time blossomed luxuriantly gothic novel became fashionable romanticism, but Westminster senior fashion neglected. They were not in vain taught rhetoric, so they wrote in the spirit of treatises Cicero argued his own, refuting an opponent just chose the word, phrase proportionate build. In their writings do not distinguish between blunt stick, no blood stains in them, streams of tears. But still …
«I have no doubt that the hand of teachers do not reach for the rod and if he shall understand that she invented by the devil! I appeal to you, Professor spanking! Who was the god of ancient paganism? The devil! Catholic Rome — is a hotbed of prejudice and superstition. Is Protestant will deny that wildness monks and savagery of these flagellation, from the devil? We throw off the yoke of Rome, but the rod still rules over us! «
Another author of «flagellants» refers to the parents:
«Venerable Fathers! Allow me to me from a distant province to inform you about the attitude to «flagellants». Imperfection my style chayatelno, being purged of my message. Know ye righteous brothers that I abide under the patronage of Mr. Tekama teacher whose hand is heavier head and almost as severe, however his heart. When we got the first number «flagellants», the teacher asked, what kind of nonsense we read. We evant. He grabbed the magazine, and putting it in his pocket, he exclaimed: «What a time! The boys are allowed to think about themselves «I have often heard about the right anointed monarch, and, frankly, had doubts. But the fact that the teacher — is also God’s anointed, something I have not heard of! «
But Westminster schoolboy memories of the mid-XIX century.:
«To punish for contempt of high school students, for something that does not keep his word, or dumped the blame on someone else for their actions, the card cheating. She was beaten by the handle rod to the shin. Beaten on the hands. Oh, those winter mornings! I pull chapped hands in pimples, now on them to slash ruler. One day I came home for the holidays, and my father took me into the bathroom for a long time washing my hands with hot water and soap, brush cleaned mourning under his fingernails, greased and gave a couple of kid gloves. I kept them for two days, all wounds healed, the skin became soft, pale … During the flogging was made to smile. Never heard a moan or sob …
In Westminster, almost tortured in vain. But it happens. Sometimes forced to spread his fingers and put his hand back side up on the desk. After tormentor pen or a penknife often-often rode between the toes. Some did it masterfully, there and back, there and back. But always ended up with one: the blood. ‘»
All corporal punishment of students carefully made out. In the school «Book of punishment», which were elders, seniors, preserved the names of all punished, dates, causes of action and execution. Igor Pomerantcev cites some records of the 1940s:
«M. punished for foul language. Warden Stemburger made a remark to the class, not to yell. Stemburger When finished, M. stood up and said, «Let’s go be ashamed.» He was told that he held his tongue. But soon it all again. I told M. that he earned three hits. He appealed the decision. We have discussed it with the director and have decided that it is necessary to punish not just for the bad language, but for all along. However, converged on two strikes … «
Spanking has been an integral part of school tradition, many pupils for life became her ardent fans. A former student of the Charterhouse School (founded in 1612) recalls that when, in 1818, her then-director Dr. Russell decided to replace corporal punishment is a fine school rebelled:
«The rod seemed to us entirely consistent with the dignity of a gentleman, and a fine — it’s shameful! School rebelled under the slogan «Down with fine, long live the whip», and the old order was officially restored. «
Of course, not all students were fans of spanking. The future prime minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965), who badly at school and also there is a remarkable stubbornness, was not at all in awe of his preparatory school in St. George:
«Rod at Eton fashion was a major part of the curriculum. But I am sure that none Eton boy, nor, especially, a boy from Harrow is subjected to such a cruel chastisement which this director was ready to unleash his care proxy and the power of small boys. They surpassed even the cruelty that was allowed in correctional institutions … Two or three times a month the whole school was driven into the library. Two classrooms chiefs pulled one or more delinquent in the next room and there were flogged till the blood, and at this time, the other sat, shivering and listening to their cries. How I hated this school and what alarm has lived there for over two years! I perform poorly in class, and I did not succeed in sport »(Churchill, 1941).
Do not feel nostalgia for the flogging and the famous Oxford philosopher Alfred Jules Ayer (1910-1989). In his elementary school «discipline was very strict. Stick punish only the director, matron giving directions rods. I got one or two rod and once, in my last year of school, for mischief in the bedroom — a spanking stick. I do not remember a lot of sticks were given, but they were very sensitive. After that, the victim going to the restroom, showing each other traces of sticks on their asses. «
On Eton, where he studied at the Ayer 1923-1928 gg., He, too, is something to remember:
«The usual punishment for the failed tasks was flogging a sports team captain … Guilty boy summoned to the room where dinner sixth graders. If he saw a chair in the middle of the room, he knew why he was here. After him unnecessarily, said to be flogging, he took off the robe, kneeling on a chair and put him seven received strong blows … shots, especially if they were applied strong athletes, were very painful, but you must was to move them to tears and twitching, and dressed and say goodbye without a quiver in his voice …
Manager’s flogging were solemn. With them were two sixth-grader is responsible for discipline, they were called praepostors. Culprit brought with deflated trousers, the gatekeeper was putting it on a special deck. Then director of the cane folded into a bundle and usually does not less than six strokes. I was present at one such flogging and was glad I did not have to experience it yourself »(Ayer, 1979).
Whipping rituals have changed. In 1964, the then director Anthony Eaton Cheneviks-Trench (Anthony Chenevix-Trench, 1919-1979) replaced polupublichnye rod or cane on the bare ass private punishment cane in his office. By the way, he did so not out of humanitarian considerations, but rather on personal preferences. One pupil of Shrewsbury School, where Trench was director earlier said that he offered guilty to choose from: four strokes cane, which is very painful, or six hits a belt that does not hurt so much, but with his pants down. Despite the humiliating procedure sensitive boys often chose belt whipping clearly delivered Trench sexual pleasure. As head of Eton, Trench abolished the traditional right to publicly chastise the older boys junior through his pants (quilty even offered to be a spanking in old pants because they could stick to break, making the punishment more severe.) Successor Trench these reforms continued, maintaining a private practice whipping boys director, he abolished the need to lower with pants and shorts. Because of this spanking was not only less painful, but less humiliating and sexy. But after the court had already 1970 …
In the 1950-1960-ies corporal punishment is still flourishing in most English public schools:
«I was beaten with a stick, because I was not in school headdress. It was three miles from the school and twenty yards from my house, I was informed my brother, who was the head. «
«The director has punished me with a stick, because he did not like the way I’m writing the letter» f ‘».
«The music teacher punished me with a stick as part of the weekly ritual, in the beginning of the lesson he smacked the whole class, saying:» I know that some of you are going to misbehave and not be seen. However, the punishment you still can not avoid! ‘»
Famous actor Adrian Edmondson (born in 1957) told the «Times» that six years (1964-1970) of his training in Poklingtonskoy school (East Yorkshire), he received a total of 66 lashes. Director of the Birmingham Royal School for boys made of each offender to personally go and buy a cane, which he will be flogged. However, punishing only the director himself, exclusively for the cause, and without sadism mostly limited to two-stroke penalty.
In the 1950-1960’s of punishment or a flexible rattan cane (bamboo for this too hard) cane (caning) gradually began to give way to flogging rubber athletic shoes or slippers (slippering). It is painful and at the same time loudly. In the joint school boys often punished with a reed, and the girls — slipper in girls’ schools generally prefer slipper.
The nature of punishment depended on the type of school. In public schools, corporal punishment is carried out exclusively by a director or his assistant, and were relatively mild. In public schools, with their ancient traditions, the maintenance of discipline, including the distribution of sticks was placed on high school students, captains ‘houses’ or sports teams, «prefects» or «monitors» (guards). Number of strokes depended not only on the severity of the offense, but also on the age of the pupil. First-grader could get four hits, second-grader — six, a sixth grader — up to ten strokes. The punishment was usually public. In one school, famous for its educational achievements, prefects up to 1965 had the right to punish the guilty mladsheklassnikov sports shoes, but sometimes this humiliating punishment did not miss even a 18-19-year-old sixth graders who might be older than the prefects.
Peter Townsend, the husband of Princess Margaret, for whom she sacrificed her title, recalls school Heylsberi 1920:
«I was beaten for trivial offenses six times. One day, realizing that I have to, I have to reduce the pain, put it under pants silk scarf. After a conversation with the director, which ended with the order «Prepare a sleeping room» — I ran across the room and noticed that my silk scarf hangs like a pennant in one of my pant legs. By that I earned an extra kick with a stick.
Sentenced himself prepared the room. It was like digging your own grave. You shifted the all the furniture to one wall, with the exception of two wooden chairs that are put back to back to your executioners it easier to smack you. For victims of flogging prefects was a test of character. Did you expect his executioners, and when they arrived, and commanded: «Bend over!» — You are following a noble tradition of many brave martyrs who ascended the scaffold, getting on his knees and bent over a chair so that your head on the seat of another. You held the seat with his hands and waited for the first to run away from the butchers, then the second, third and fourth (the maximum number of strokes permitted by the prefects of the house). Then was heard the command: «You can go!» You ascended with all the dignity he could muster, and with his head held high left the room, with the confidence that if you have not started, you have successfully completed another exercise of survival »(Townsend, 1979) .
At the Royal School of Canterbury, located next to the famous cathedral (it was founded in 597 as a church, and in 1541 Henry VIII transformed it into a public, well-known among her pupils writers Christopher Marlowe and Somerset Maugham, physicist William Harvey, Field Marshal Montgomery ), in the 1940s, all the penalties dispensed captain of the school and the boys-chief. Warden catch violators and then, after the verdict, and beat them with a stick. Spanking is considered responsible repossession, «You know, it’s not just, hit him with a stick!» To her were preparing. The elders used to meet for five minutes before the appointed time, put the front red robe and carefully studied the list of the guilty, who were waiting for their turn in the next room. Joke and laugh at the time was prohibited. Smacked the offender usually the elder, who noticed a violation. Most of the chiefs openly enjoyed his power. When the offender entered the room, the elder said to him: «John, I will punish you for what you’re running down the hall. You want to say something? «Then, without paying attention to the words of the convicted, he ordered him to kneel on a chair, lie down on his stomach on his back, stuck out his ass, lift and push the coat-tails of his coat and smooth trousers. Junior Warden fingered well or stretched pants, and then started spanking. At the first stroke being punished just silently winced after the third or fourth stroke, he could not help but cry out. If the boy was silent, suspecting that he planted something under his pants, put on additional briefs, etc. Experienced elders were able to identify a scam, even the sound of blows. In this case, the number of strokes increased. Upon completion of execution warden said, «You can go now,» to which whipped had to answer «thank you» or «thank you, Simpson!». Any extra word was seen as a daring and could result in additional punishment.
Many headmen execution sexually aroused. To hide his erection, they covered the front of the pants or robes kept his hands in his pockets, and after flogging privately «discharged» in the toilet. Did the same, and some punished. Not surprisingly, the «old boy», who described the practice of the Canterbury School half a century later, do not see it as anything particularly cruel and believes that she is «definitely improved» his character and made him a better person and citizen, than it would be without it.
Confirm whether this opinion is teaching statistics? The first attempt to answer this question British pedagogy taken in 1845, when the school inspector priest Frederick Watkins presented to the Council on Education for the official report on corporal punishment in schools in the Northern District. Of the 163 schools surveyed corporal punishment is practiced in 145 out of 18. Almost all the schools of the second group were extremely girlish, «infant» (for children from 4 to 7 years) or mixed (opposite-sex) and also small. Despite the lack of corporal punishment in schools for girls and infant schools existed excellent discipline and high academic performance. In other types of schools with that and the other had a problem.
When conscientious Watkins separately analyzed 27 state schools where corporal punishment is used most often were the most violent, the result was disastrous at all. In 20 of these schools discipline was much worse than average, if not the worst in the county. In 15 schools, the moral atmosphere and academic performance were also bad. Of the remaining seven schools, three were in good condition, and 4 — to mediocre. As the inspector concluded, «the discipline of fear, not love» is not conducive to either mental or moral development.
This was especially true of boys’ schools:
«Among disadvantaged, uncultured and almost animal-like inhabitants of our schools for boys is nature, which are subject exclusively to the power, but the task of the teacher is to try to win them any other way; obvious that the more often used the whip, the less attractive it becomes» (How They Were Taught, 1969).
However, while the abolition of corporal punishment is not yet. The famous British educator, director of Harlow Sir Cyril Norwood (1875-1956) wrote about teachers XIX century.:
«They» proparyvali «their way semester semester, with a high sense of duty. Flogged for not knowing the lesson, for carelessness, for vice. Most teachers do not know any boys who were whipped, for what they flogged them »(Norwood, 1929).
Noticeable effect on the change in the attitude of the British public to corporal punishment had two tragic event.
The first — the death in 1846 as a result of the brutal «military flogging» 27-year-old Private Hussars of Frederick John White. For causing a drunken brawl hitting a metal stick to his Sergeant White was sentenced to 150 lashes. Flogging was «normal» in the presence of three hundred soldiers, colonel and the regimental surgeon, ten of those present at the execution of ordinary, including four experienced soldiers, from this terrible spectacle lost consciousness. At the hospital, where, in accordance with the instruction immediately taken to White, his streaked back safely healed, but for some reason he developed pain in the heart, and three weeks after the execution of an ordinary death. The regimental doctor admitted the death of a natural, non-spanking, but White’s fellow soldiers to doubt this, there was so much tension that the colonel had in any case, even away from the soldiers ammo. The local vicar shared doubts and soldiers refused to allow the burial without autopsy, and when it had, the jury ruled that Private White died as a result of the brutal whipping. By this jury added the following text:
«Introducing the verdict, the court can not refrain from expressing their horror and disgust at the fact that the country has laws or regulations allowing the application to the British soldiers outrageous punishment of flogging; jury begs everyone in this kingdom does not regret forces out to write and send a petition to the legislature with the requirement in the most urgent form, the abolition of any laws, orders and regulations that assume that the shameful practice of flogging remains a blot on humanity and on the good name of the people of this country. «
Several letters with similar examples published by the newspaper «Times». A petition demanding the abolition of flogging, was admitted to the House of Lords, which is August 14, 1846 ordered the government to seriously discuss this issue. On the advice of the Minister of War of the Duke of Wellington, the maximum number of lashes was reduced to fifty. However, a complete ban spanking did not happen, these attempts have failed in the years 1876-1877.
The second case, the death in 1860 at the hands of sadistic teacher’s 13-year-old student, looks even more creepy (Middleton, 2005). School teacher in Eastbourne Thomas Hopley (1819-1876) was unhappy with progress of «retarded boy» Reginald Kensellora and wrote to his father, asking permission to punish student «so much and for so long as is necessary to get him to learn.» My father gave consent. Hopley brought the boy late at night in an empty classroom and within two hours of beating his heavy brass candlestick, after which the child died. Teacher to cover up the crime failed, he was found guilty of homicide. The Court held that although Hopley had a legitimate right to physically punish students, especially with the consent of the father, he applied the punishment was excessive, according to the law it must be «reasonable and prudent.» But how to determine the edge of both?
The evolution of British pedagogy on this issue has been long and difficult. The first votes in favor of a more humane education were heard in England in the Middle Ages. Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), later numbered among the saints clique, called for «moderation in punishment» and condemned the abuse of corporal punishment of children. In the Renaissance, the voices are amplified.
In the XVI century. to English, as well as the entire European, educational thought has influenced Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536). In the book «On the decent upbringing of children from the first years of life» (1529) he wrote that he totally «agree with Kvintilianom in condemning flogging under any circumstances.» «We should not teach a child to shock … The body gradually becomes insensitive to the cuff, and the spirit — to reproaches … We insist, repeat, repeat! Here’s a stick by what children need to crush the ribs! «
The author of the treatise «The Schoolmaster» Roger Ashe (1515-1568) wrote that many of the boys run away from Eton, because they are afraid of flogging, and that «love is spurring the children to a good school better whipping.» However, he Ash did not work at the school, he had only private students. In the XVII century. English pedagogy tested positive humanizing influence of Jan Amos Comenius (1592-1670).
At the end of the XVII century. critical attitudes toward corporal punishment was strong, but the arguments were added to the didactic social and moral. John Locke in his famous treatise, «Some Thoughts Concerning Education» (1693), withstand up to 25 titles in 1800, without denying the legitimacy of corporal punishment in principle, required to use them sparingly, as servile discipline forms the slave character. «This method of discipline, which is widely used and is available to teachers in their understanding, is the least useful of all imaginable» (Locke, 1988. T. 3).
Instead beliefs spanking «creates in the child aversion to that provider must make him fall in love», gradually transforming the child secretive, evil, insincere creature whose soul is, ultimately, a kind word and available positive example.
The problem of discipline in British schools has long been a real headache for teachers and parents to the United Kingdom. According to the poll last, a significant percentage of Britons in favor of the resumption of corporal punishment in educational institutions. Ironically, the students themselves also believe that to calm their excessively aggressive classmates may just stick.
In British schools may soon re-introduce corporal punishment. At the very least, the results of the company in the Times Educational Supplement 2012 survey shows that residents of Albion do not see any other way to calm their excessively unrestrained children. According to sociologists, the survey of more than 2,000 parents, 49% of adults dream of a return are the days when schools actively used public floggings and other corporal punishment.
Moreover, one in five of the 530 children surveyed said that it was in agreement with the parents protesting the return of such a «draconian» measures restore order. As it turned out, tired of bullies not only teachers, but also the students themselves, which interfere with their aggressive classmates to learn. The introduction of corporal punishment in schools in England could soon become a reality, since this program has actively supported the British Education Minister Michael Gove, who believes that «restless» children’s time to show the «who’s the boss.»
According to the official, almost 93% of parents and 68% of the students of the country believe that teachers need a free hand in terms of tightening sanctions. However, not all British teachers in agreement with the Minister of Education. The head of the National Association of Women Teachers Chris Keats believes that «in a civilized society to hit children is unacceptable»
Teens feel themselves masters of the schools and began to violate with impunity the discipline in the classroom. In 2011, the teachers still allowed to physically prevent the actions of teenagers if they threaten public order.
«If any parent now hears a school,» Sorry, we have no right to use physical force to the students, «that this school is not right. Just not right. Rules of the game have changed, «- said the Minister.
Also the head of the educational department of the country suggests that the school has to work more than men. And offers to hire for this military-retirees who will have credibility with most passionary students.
In Britain, officially abandon physical abuse in schools began only in 1984, when such methods to establish order in the schools were found degrading. And it concerned only the public schools. In 1999, corporal punishment was banned in England and Wales in 2000 — in Scotland and in 2003 — in Northern Ireland.
Private schools in the country were also encouraged to stop beating delinquent adolescents. But there corporal punishment has not been canceled.
The main instrument of punishment in many public and private schools in England and Wales was (and is) a flexible rattan cane, which strikes to the arms or buttocks. In some places, instead of canes used belt. In Scotland, and a number of UK schools enjoyed great popularity leather belt with a pen — Tous.
A common tool is the paddle (raddle — paddle, paddle) — a special Paddles as elongated plate with a handle made of wood or leather.
Another leader of world democracy — the United States, also in no hurry to give up the practice of corporal suggestion. Again, do not confuse the system of private schools and public education.
The ban on the use of physical interventions only passed in 29 states of the country, and only two of them — the New Jersey and Iowa — corporal punishment is prohibited by law and in private schools too. In the 21st state to punish schools is not forbidden. In general, these states are located in the U.S. South.
However, private schools, including the prestigious, left this tool to influence students in their arsenal. Teaching staff of private educational institutions was only recommended to stop beating students. However, push-ups and other additional physical activity for particularly active students in the spirit of the army, it seems, quite successfully survived the period of prohibition.
By the way, completely abolished corporal punishment in schools was Russian in 1917. At the beginning of the last century, gradually abandoning this practice resulted in other European countries — Austria and Belgium. There have also been abolished punishment in Russia owned by Finland.
During the period of the monarchy 15th and 16th centuries whipping boy (a whipping boy) had a child who was set to the young prince. Children were appointed to this position by the court of England, and the title itself is created on the basis of the so-called right of God’s anointed, claiming that no one but the monarch can not punish the king’s son. And as the king could own flog a child is extremely rare, the teachers were very difficult to teach hooligan princes.
On this basis, and was organized by the title of «whipping boy.» These children mostly belong to families zanmayuschim high position in society, and they trained together with Prince since its inception. Due to the fact that the prince and whipping boy grew up shoulder to shoulder, they usually experience a strong emotional attachment to each other. In this case, the child of the monarch did not really have another friend or partner for the games, as is the case with the other children.
It is this strong attachment and exploited teacher punishing the nearest person instead of the guilty prince. Whipping boy whipped or beaten in front of the future monarch in the belief that such disobedience vpret not happen again.
By the way, in Mark Twain’s novel «The Prince and the Pauper» one of the characters was also a whipping boy, who, not knowing that the Prince — an impostor, helped him learn new subtleties of court etiquette.
See also: Public executions — a European entertainment
When the British government solves the problem of «difficult childhood», Hitler is better to stand on the sidelines