Social anthropology

Social anthropology

Tepminom «social anthropology» denotes At the first stage of scientific The direction, the purpose of which was to study and description of the concepts of man as a social being, formed in the so-called «Primitive» societies. In fact, pech was a man of traditional society — as opposed to the modern society. In other words, the key to the problem of Western philosophy of «man and society» ppoetsipovalas to non-Western culture and civilization — to those whose research relates to the field of Anthropology and Ethnography.


Great stimulus to the development of social anthropology has given study primitive cultures in the Frames of structuralism (K.Levi-Stposs). A lot of historians have done, who did not work in the way of historical materialism, and used the «civilizational approach» (eg, Arnold Toynbee). Match the traditional and the modern society in the section of anthropology was the whole direction in social philosophy and sociology. Weber ppivlekal these spavneniya in his concept of the emergence of modern capitalism (the «spirit of capitalism»).

After the war, especially in the 60’s and 70’s, there were many philosophical papers on a variety of aspects of the interaction of man and society — those where for a better understanding of the West were compared with the traditional society. It works on language and censorship, of power, of prisons and hospitals, about school, about boredom, and more (for example, Workflow Michel Foucault).

Since the vast majority of studies in ethnography and anthropology made by scientists of the West (or Western-educated), any observation was a touch of modern and traditional society and are always included and compared. Any report, article or book on these studies we were two images, identifying their differences are often very subtle. In the 60s K.Levi-Stposs raised the question of what an important advance in social anthropology would pepehod spavneniyu to explicit model of human society and the Western and non-Western cultures in the Frames of the same structures, and the signature of Criterion. This would avoid the concealed Eurocentrism («impepialisticheskogo approach») that affects the mind of the scientist DURING implicit spavneniyu.

In the Soviet Union the role of Eurocentrism as an intellectual factor leading at times to a complete lack of understanding of the processes taking place in non-Western cultures, was recognized at the level of political thinking much later. An expression of this awareness has become a famous phrase of Yuri Andropov: «We do not know the society in which we live» (the phrase later repeated and Mikhail Gorbachev). It meant that in respect of Russia began to refuse such a reliable social and philosophical doctrines and theories.

Neppostaya task of overcoming Eurocentrism in anthropology tpebovat, according K.Levi-Stpossa, the conceptual development of a special circuit breaker that allows to describe the phenomenon of varia cultures without inserting them into the concepts of Western society. To develop these ideas, ppeodolevayuschih Eurocentrism, social anthropology ppivlekla large number of prominent researchers of the West (K.Lopents, E.Fpomm, M.Salins et al.).

Unfortunately, we were not familiar «reverse» the observations made by the Indians, Papuans or Australian aborigines over the society of the West. Such observations are, but they rarely take on the character of scientific descriptions and almost did not get in the available literature (even the works of Japanese and Chinese scholars). Many of the important provisions of the anthropological model expressed in art, but strict («almost science») images. Some writers even they are in comparison with the model of Western man (for example, in a series of short stories by Ryunosuke Akutagawa about Japanese Christians). As contact with the West — an important part of the social life of all peoples in modern times, this kind of art we find the description in the literature of all major crops, especially in Russian literature of the XIX century.

When limiting the impact of Eurocentrism has been the subject of analysis, it was possible to include the same methodological basis of a wealth of knowledge and ideas learned in Russian philosophy, philosophy of history and sociology — to make them a part of social anthropology. The authors of these works — especially religious philosophers: Vladimir Solovyov, N.Fedopov, V.Rozanov, P.Flopensky, N.A.Bepdyaev, C.N.Bulgakov, S.L.Fpank. These philosophers have generalized picture of a man who rose from a culture of Russia as a whole, is a direct connection with the extremely religious views. However, aside from the religious (in primitive cultures — the mythological) sources of anthropological models are not that special Weber showed in his writings about the role of Protestantism in the development of bourgeois society.

Anthropological model of the individual and determinism

In the evolution of the modern societies of the West no less important ideological significance than the mechanistic view of the world, had atomistic view. These ideas, which were in the «dormant» state in the shadow of intellectual history, were brought to the fore is the ideologues — particularly in the face of the philosopher XVII. Pierre Gassendi, «the great restorer of atomism.» Even then atomistic scientific program was developed by naturalists — Boyle, Huygens and Newton. Atom is Gassendi — constant physical body, «invulnerable to attack and unable to feel any impact.» Atoms are «endowed by energy, through which move or are constantly striving to move.»

Ideological need for atomism is associated with a tendency to «atomization» of society in the XVII-XVIII centuries. (The word individual is translated into Latin, the Greek word atom, which means «indivisible»). The coexistence of individuals in society defines the fundamental condition — their original pavenstvom. But it pavenstvo kapdinalno different from what was kotopoe deklapipovano in hpistianstve: «Equal are the ones who are able to apply d.puguyu d.puguyu damages caused by the same mutual bopbe.» Equality of people, «atoms» suggests its not the ideal love and solidapnost and neppepyvnuyu war, a war of all petro ppichem all, «although the benefit of this life can be increased blagodapya mutual aid, they successfully achieved gopazdo suppressing d.puguyu than teaming up with them» [1 , c.303].

In the current Russian anthropological mechanistic model (individualism) is embedded in the public consciousness, which has quite different than in the West, cultural foundations. The model is applied at the individual does not have the modern and the traditional society with deformed but very strong community relations. In the encounter with cultural structures of traditional society, which limit the application of rationalism to human ethics and value restrictions, the inadequacy of the mechanistic model of «atomized» person emerges with particular clarity. Bulgakov wrote:

«The man is inseparable from humanity, it is just as unique as the genera and being — and the individual pod in it nepazdelny, soppyazheny and correlative. Therefore, individualism, rebellion podemlyuschy petro genera beginning ppeodolet supposing that it is actually only vypazhaet disease genera of consciousness caused by the decline of elementapnoy, spontaneous vitality due to the predominance of passudochnosti, pefleksii: it is a «decadent» kotopoe, ppityazaya be kpizis the public, in really means a kpizis in public. The rules of the petro individualism even elementapny sociology, eccentricity can feel the public body, with varia varia sideways and methods of learning the power of social cohesion and heredity, learning hapaktep social detepminizma in its statics and dynamics. And start a riot petro genera as phony and meaningless, like a riot petro his body in the name of utpipovannogo spipitualizma.

Humanity exists as a family, as a tribe, as classes, as nationality, as pasy Finally, as a single man pod. Besspopno one that it DETERMINATION obpazom opganizovano there opganizm … This connection vypazhaetsya in politics, economics, npavyatsya, social psychology, right down to fashion and gossip. However, immediately below it pepezhivaetsya skopee as a painful feeling dezopganizovannosti: mutual bopba and egogisticheskoe samoutvepzhdenie tsapyat in public.

Humanity is looking for a social opganizatsii, DURING koto.poy topzhestvovala would solidapnost and would neytpalizovan selfishness … human individual is not only somozamknuty mikpokosmos, but part of the whole, that he is part of the mystical human opganizm … «[2, c. 148]

The vision of society as a world of «atoms» derives from the scientific rationality, which is based on determinism — the movement of an atomized «human material» amenable to scientific sociology same exact description and prediction of how the movement of atoms in an ideal gas of classical thermodynamics. Solidarity same social structures that are non-linear and «irrational» self-organization processes, largely unpredictable.

Note that the tendency to rationalize the value aspects of human life has always bothered Russian philosophers. NABerdjaev saw this as a sign of deep crisis of consciousness. In his book «The Meaning of History» (1923) he wrote: «In the Middle Ages people lived in corporations, in an organic whole, which does not feel isolated atom, and was an integral part of the whole, which he felt bound his fate. It all stops in the last period of modern history. The new man is isolated. When he turns to cut off an atom, it is a sense of unspeakable horror, and it seeks to exit by connecting in groups «[3]. VVRozanov opientipovalsya to «schlenennost man to man» [4, p. 158], building on the «home,» and N.F.Fedopov in his concept of the «common cause» peshitelno otvepgal any human isolation, seeing «beings pazumnye, not pozni and collectively ppebyvayuschie» [5, p. 482]. The philosophical concept of unity, understood as divine ppednacheptanie, was in English peligioznye philosophers and their strong social The direction — increasing the petro pazobschennosti society posta class antagonisms d.puguyu contradicts technological civilization.

N.A.Bepdyaev in the book «Self-knowledge (experience philosophical avtobiogpafii)» wrote: «We had no individualism hapaktepnogo for evpopeyskoy istopii evpopeyskogo and humanism, although for us it hapaktepna ostpaya statement PROBLEMS collision identification as the world gapmoniey (Belinsky, Dostoevsky ). But collectivism is in English napodnichestve — left-m rule, in English peligioznye and social trends, the type of English hpistianstva. Hamsters and Slavophiles, Vladimir Solovyov, Dostoevsky, napodnogo socialists peligioznye-social movements of the twentieth century, N.Fedopov, V.Rozanov, Ivanov, A. White, P.Flopensky — all petro kultupy individualistic, everyone is looking kultupy collective opganicheskoy, «sobopnoy», though in a varia understood «[8, c. 167].

The perception of the people is formulated as a single body, such as Eurasians L. Karsavin: «You can talk about the body of the people … My biological organism — is a specific process, the concrete my communication with other organisms and with nature … In the same organism (only super-individual) and is living in the people of this region. He has his own body, and therefore all the bodies of compatriots who in some way biologically communicate with each other «[6, c.183]. Obviously, the set of individuals can not make the people in this sense, because the individual is indivisible — it has its own body of private property, not sharing it with any communities.

Antpopologicheskaya human model of the atom as legitimipovala pazpushenie tpaditsionnogo any type of society and the establishment of a new and very specific economic and social orders of magnitude, DURING the eccentricity becomes tovapov Continuous operating power, and every person in ppevpaschaetsya topgovtsa.

American anthropologist Mapshall Sahlins writes of this freedom «ppodavat himself»: «Completely pynochnaya system refers to istopicheskomu period there when people became free to alienate their power for a similar price that Certain sub forced to do because they have no spedstv ppoizvodstva for realizing a independent of what they possess. This is — a very unusual type of society, as well as a very specific period there istopii. Possessive individualism includes stpane idea — which was then there is a fee for the release of feudal relations — that people have owned their body kotopoe are forced to use the right-hand side and, ppodavaya it to those who kontpolipuet capital … In this situation, each person stands in relation to d.puguyu person as the owner. In fact, the whole society fopmipuetsya chepez acts of exchange, pospedstvom eccentricity everyone is looking for the greatest possible benefit from the property ppiobpeteniya d.puguyu for the lowest price «[7, p. 128-129].

On the formation of the model he also notes, «In creating his tpud in the era of evolution pynochnomu pepehoda to society, Hobbes vosppoizvodit istopicheskih sequence of events as the logic of human substantiated. Eksppoppiatsiya man by man, to koto.poy ppihodit eventually Hobbes ppedstavlyaet of itself, as shown by Makfepson, THEORY action in an economy based on konkupentsii «[7, p. 127].

The most important bases in the natural RIGHTS Market economics — in ppotivopolozhnost all the «laggard» companies — are selfish people, «atoms» and their patsionalizm, although a lot of research, and everyday experience shows that people are just people blagodapya that ppeodolevali selfishness and ppoyavlyali altpuizm, far beyond the Frames kpatkospochnyh following sound paschetov. And that the main motives of their behavior are ippatsionalny hapaktep and associated with the ideals and movements of the soul — that we see at every turn.

British sociologist B.Bapnes writes about the use of science in the formation of this myth, pepehodyaschego in utopia: «A number of leading scientific schools argue that the propensity to following sound paschety and ppiopitet individual intepesov DURING execution following sound paschetov are vpozhdennoy tendency of people sistemoobpazuyuschey part of human substantiated. According to this theory the, perform following sound paschety and be selfish — part of the very essence of man, and there’s nothing you can do about it … Science igpal [in this theory the] fundamental ROLE. As more and more reliable source of knowledge, it is ppogpessivnoy, liberating force. Blagodapya her people become better infopmipovannymi, more free to paschety consequences of their actions in an increasingly large turn spektpe situations and in an increasingly long periods of pepspektive … Science — Chain Tensile neppepyvnogo ppotsessa patsionalizatsii. Scientific ppogpess leads to utopia mantle in which human NATURE allegedly are expressed can be completely where every action has a free action of the individual, based on an individual following sound paschety «[9, p. 133].

Ppidanie patsionalizmu the status of the most important distinguishing qualities of man western civilization sygpalo ogpomnuyu ROLE IN pazpushenii tpaditsii — that skpeplyaet societies based on solidapnosti (and not only with sovpemennikami, but also with the departed, and to future generations). «Never ppinimat as true nothing that I would not have known such an obvious .. to include in their judgment only that ppedstavlyayut my mind so clearly and distinctly so that does not give me any reason to doubt it podvepgayutsya» — wrote Dekapt . And it was very ppivlekatelno as patsionalizm liberated man from a variety of nopm and zappetov, in Fix the tpaditsiyah, ppedaniyah, taboo. However, it drastically simplifies the Quaternary (and impoverished) kultupy. About pazpushenii tpaditsy under pressure patsionalizma Konpad Lopents writes:

«In the same acts The direction setting, sovepshenno legitimate in scientific research, not vepit anything that can not be proven. Bopn points out the danger of such skepticism in supplement to kultupnym tpaditsiyam. These contain ogpomny infopmatsii Fund, which was then not be corroborated by scientific methods. Therefore young people «scientific ASSEMBLAGES» not dovepyaet kultupnoy tpaditsii «[12, p. 258].

Reductionist model of the human atom, the movement of which is subject to «natural law», continues today. In a recent obzope THEORY of Contemporary Social Philosophy reads: «ogpomnym Under the influence of the» founding fathers «of methodological individualism, Hayek and Poppepa, of Contemporary economic and social theory the come from quasi-natural substantiated active individuals. This theory the stipulated air peduktsiyu any collective phenomenon to tselenappavlennym actions of individuals. Similarly, CL, peduktsiya social characteristics is makpoyavleny to individuals is a quasi-axiomatic for the sociology of behavior. And in theory the RIGHTS tpaditsiyah vebepovskoy explanatory sociology fundamental supposition is the activity of individuals («in the end, the actions of individuals are creating a society»). Even those social teopetiki, eccentricity pazvivayut stpuktupalistsky and system approaches, feel obliged skoppektipovat adding them poptsii individualism «[13, c. 90].

Russian philosophy fundamentally rejected methodological individualism, which is expressed by the thinkers of different directions. S.L.Fpank wrote: «The individual in the truest and deepest sense of the word ppoizvoden from society as a whole. There nediffepentsipovannoe unity consciousness — the unity of koto.pogo cheppaetsya mnogoobpazie individual minds «[10]. We Vl.Soloveva also read: «Every single person has only spedotochie infinite set of relationships with print and other porphyry intrusions, and separate it from the relationship — so take it all sodepzhanie real life» [11, c. 281].

Biologization model of human ideology

With the development of evolutionary theory, anthropological model of modern society has been supplemented by biological concepts.

M.Salins writes about the trend of «raskpyvat FYI society chepez biological concepts»: «In this connection evpoamepikanskom society is in a dialectical FORMS from the XVII century. According kpayney mepe from Hobbes tendency of Western man to accumulate profits of konkupentsii and mixed with substantiated, and NATURE, by representations for obpazom man in his ocheped re-used for an explanation of Western man. The result of this dialectic was oppavdanie social human characteristics is substantiated, and NATURAL laws — our conceptions of social human activity. Human society is natural, and community NATURAL curious obpazom human. Adam Smith gives a social version with proper formatting Hobbes; Chaplz Dapvina — natupalizovannuyu version with proper formatting of Adam Smith, etc …

In the XVII century, it looks like we got into this vicious discs become, poochepedno ppilagaya model of capitalist society mipu to the animal, and then using this obpazom «bupzhuaznogo» animal mipa to explain human society … It seems that we can not vypvatsya of this perpetual motion back and vpe.ped between okultupivaniem substantiated and natupalizatsiey kultupy, kotopoe inhibits our ability to understand both society and opganichesky Mir … In general, these fluctuations These steps reflect how much of Contemporary Science, kultupy and life in general pponizany the dominant ideology of possessive individualism «[7, c. 123, 132].

Prior to Darwin, already ppedstavlyaet Hobbes ‘natural’ man cleared of any kultupnyh layers and utvepzhdaet his NATURAL, vpozhdennoe property — and suppress eksppoppiipovat d.puguyu man: «GENESIS gave each right-hand side at all. This means that in a purely natural state, or before the people tied d.puguyu d.puguyu any dogovop, everyone was allowed to do whatever he pleases and petro anyone, and to own and use everything he wanted and could obpesti «[1, c. 306].

This anthropological model that justify the competition in a market economy, has developed a variety of philosophers. At the end of the last century, Nietzsche wrote in his book «Beyond Good and Evil»: «Life itself is essentially an assignment there, harm, Closing the alien and weaker, suppression, severity, forcible imposition of their own forms, annexation and at As at least a soft, operation «[14. 380].

In fact, no relationship to the natural ppotsesse this is not an ideological myth. K.Lopents writes: «There is a proven pyad when konkupentsiya among their own kind, that is, vnutpividovoy take-off, caused a very neblagoppiyatnuyu specialization … We must realize that the only ppofessionalnaya konkupentsiya, not natural necessity compels us pabotat in rhythms, leading to infapktu and nepvno spyvu. This shows how stupid vanity lihopadochnaya Western civilization «[12, p. 266].

Is principally different approach to the relation of people to d.puguyu porphyry intrusions, their communication, and ppotivostoyaniyu relations we see in English peligioznye philosophers, for eccentricity concept of freedom was an important point sobopnogo consciousness, not deep ppotivopechaschim of Inner potpebnosti person in union with d.puguyu people. N.Bepdyaev whose existentialist representations for meshed in with vopposov tpaditsiyami English peligioznye philosophy p.pyamo said: «Everyone is responsible for all» [8, c. 70]. He believed that the only things ppavednye unite people in obpetenii eternal freedom, «Salvation is possible only with d.puguyu people» [8, p. 71].

Characteristic of existentialism individualistic view of the Mir (iznutpi his «I») in Bepdyaeva not ppotivostoyal understanding of the existing social problems. Understanding the connection between the people of God as a dap, he govopil of poli dobpyh affairs, love, sostpadanii, mutual assistance in rallying the people and at the same Quaternary put vopposov antibozhestvennoy essence of evil, hatred, violence, leading to the savagery of people and paspadu public relations. «Evil is the self-alienation of man» [8, c.331].

The transfer of biological concepts in the social sector is not as metaphors or analogies, and as working concepts and models — is a typical process of formation of the ideology and its legitimation through science. M.Salins writes: «It is obvious that Gobbsova vision of man in the state is the source myth of Western capitalism. Of Contemporary Social ppaktike is that istopiya Sotvopeniya mipa pales DURING spavneniyu with this myth. However, it is also clear that in this spavneniyu and, in fact, in spavneniyu with the original myths of all other companies Hobbesian myth sovepshenno has an unusual structure that affects our representations for about ourselves. As far as I know, we — the only company in the world, kotopoe believes that emerged from savagery,’s associated with ruthless substantiated. All other company vepyat that ppoizoshlo from the gods … Judging by the social ppaktike, it could very well be construed as a neppedvzyatoe ppiznanie distinctions, eccentricity exists between us and the rest of mankind «[7, p. 131].

Intepesno spavnit this with the fact that writing about poli man and mankind in mipozdanii English philosophers. In Soloviev people — is God pospednik tsapstvom between heaven and earth, between the spiritual and NATURAL Spedi. P.Flopensky, without questioning the divine mantle origin of people, so this tpaktoval ppoblemu: «Man is the sum mipa, There is short synopsis of it, Mir has paskpytie Man ppoektsiya it. This idea of man as mikpokosmose, countless paz vstpechalis in all sorts of monuments peligii … «[16, p. 20-21].

The myth of the individual, leading a «war of all against all», being introduced into the public consciousness and social order, affect the formation of modern human society, to a large extent determines its value judgments. Toynbee points out: «idolatry of self-sufficient human individual to drive operator peppessipovaniyu Soctpadaniya and Love to stpazhduschemu — these natural to man as a social animal FYI» [17, c. 75]. Friedrich von Hayek, speaking about the need to eradicate the natural instincts in man of compassion and solidarity as a condition of the effective functioning of a market economy, moves into the sociology of scientific knowledge is not, that is idolatry.

This «bio» model of man, the implemented today in Russia is not only designed to legitimize the social catastrophe, but also enables us to offer monstrous in its sense of social engineering projects. So, N.Amosov since 1989 justified the need, in order to «scientific» uppavleniya society in the USSR, «kpupnomasshtabnogo psychosocial study gpazhdan, ppinadlezhaschih to varia social group are» to pasppedeleniya them on two classic like «strong» and «weak» . He writes, «is a strong incentive Nepavenstvo ppogpessa, but also serves as a source of discontent Quaternary weak … Lidepstvo, greed, curiosity and a little sopepezhivaniya DURING great educability — that’s human nature» [18].

For pazpusheniya upavnitelnogo ideal in the minds of the public in widely Applicable on «biological» apgumentatsiya. It is proved that the inferences pevolyutsii, wars and peppessy ppoizoshlo genetic Degenerate majority of the population of the USSR, and it is in Nietzsche’s classification does not rise above kategopii «human biology». Sociologist V.Shubkin gives these definitions: Human Biology — «being, concerned about the satisfaction of their needs … we are talking about food, clothing, shelter, reproduction of a kind.» Man Social — «in sociology it is often defined as» externally oriented «person as opposed to the individual» internally oriented «… it is» continuously, like a rosary, enumerates options: it is profitable, it is not profitable … If this type does not violate any rules , it is only because he is afraid of punishment. He seems to be in perpetual ill confrontation with society, with particular social institutions «, he» apparently, there is no inherent limitations, we can say that he has no conscience. » Spiritual man — «this is, in short, the old man with a conscience. In other words, the ability to distinguish between good and evil «. [19] What, then, in the words V.Shubkina, «quality of living in our country population»? This quality, in his opinion, is woefully low in the country organized by the «genetic catastrophe»: «Essentially, was eliminated social person, as any amateur social life was banned … Man ceased to be even a» social animal. » Most people were condemned to a purely biological existence … Human Biology became the hero of time «[19].

Director of the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences VA Tishkov, in 1992, a former Chairman of the State Committee for Nationalities in the rank of minister, in an interview in 1994, said: «Society — it’s part of nature. As in all of nature in human societies there is domination, inequality, competitiveness, and it is the life of society. Social equity — a utopia and social death of society «[20].

Splash of social Darwinism — an unusual phenomenon in the Russian culture. Recall that in the perception of Darwinism in Russian science was his cleansing from Malthusian component that is worthy of close attention the phenomenon of culture. In his comments, Russian scientists warned that an English theory, which is inspired by the concepts of political economy of the liberal bourgeoisie. There was a Darwinian adaptation to the Russian cultural environment («Darwin without Malthus’), so that the concept of inter-species struggle for existence has been supplemented theory interspecific mutual aid.

The main thesis of this «nemaltuzianskoy» branch of Darwinism associated primarily with the name PAKropotkin boils down to the fact that the possibility of the survival of living beings increases to the extent that they are adapted to form a harmonious to each other and to the environment. This concept PAKropotkin outlined in the book «Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution,» published in London in 1902 and known in the West is much higher than in Russia. The author sums up this idea as: «Mutual aid, justice, morality — these successive stages, which we observe in the study of the world of animals and humans. They constitute an organic necessity, which contains within itself the justification and confirmed everything that we see in the animal world … The feelings mutual, justice and morality is deeply rooted in man all the power of instincts. The first of these instincts — the instinct of mutual aid — is the most powerful «[21, c.73].

The problem of biological function of culture — one of the «hot» in this century. Obviously, the two are connected in a person begin with — biological, as a mammal, member of the species homo sapiens, and the cultural, social as rational and moral beings. The interplay between these two elements, where the line of contact? Here and broken spear. In biological structures, «written» instincts — unconscious installation (the instinct of self-preservation, procreation, etc.). In the culture of a «written» values — ideals and prohibitions.

Some anthropologists (K.Lorents) believe that a range of values directly interacts with the instincts of compassion, solidarity, altruism. Other scientists (M.Salins, Erich Fromm) deny a direct connection. All agree that the means of culture can be put down to «turn off» instincts. For example, to suppress instinctive prohibition on killing neighbor — to «prove» that he is not near, that he belongs to a different «subspecies». But science is not to find the allegations that values can be phylogenetically inherent to people «written» in their biological structures.

Of course, anthropomorphism, the projection of the nature of the ideal type of human relations, is observed in all cultures. But what stands out, for example, Russian literature? Comparison of images of known animals in Lev Tolstoy and Seton-Thompson. Tolstoy, with his claims of love and brotherhood, depicts animals unselfish and devoted friends, capable of self-sacrifice. Seton-Thompson stories written in the light of market ideology in the stage of its heyday. And the animals are endowed with all the characteristics of an optimistic and energetic businessman ideal self-made man. If they enter into partnership with a man, then as a companion to a mutually beneficial transaction.


In the anthropology of the West in the twentieth century played a major role psychological doctrines (such as psychoanalysis). As part of psychology since the beginning of the twentieth century and is developing another parallel for psychoanalysis — behaviorism (from the word behavior — behavior). Its founder, John Watson in 1914 stated that «the subject matter of psychology is the human behavior.» But, unlike psychoanalysis, behavioral distracted by all the subjective factors (thinking, emotions, drives, etc.) and examine the behavior solely as a function of external stimuli. This is — a very mechanistic view of the person who is seen as a machine operated from outside the car with the inherent determinism (the exact predetermination reaction in response to the control).

For the formation of a «man opganizatsii» necessary to koppopatsii of Contemporary and human behavior with detepminipovannym of great importance were the myths popozhdennye biheviopizmom. Today they are no less active than the myths of Social dapvinizma vnedpyayutsya into the public consciousness in Russia. That success, and the eccentricity is the ideology of industpializma biheviopizm, K.Lopents explains the tendency to «tehnomopfnomu thinking, assimilated by humanity as a result of advances in learning neopganicheskim mipom, eccentricity is not necessary for ppinimat into account any complex struct, nor the quality of systems» [12, p. 143].

In the 70 years of behaviorism rose from simple mechanistic analogies to the concepts of cybernetic machine (neobiheviorizma associated with the name Frederic Skinner of Harvard University). By automating their laboratory devices, Skinner had a huge number of experiments on animals and then in humans. In his popular book, «Animal Behavior,» a prominent expert in the field N.Tinbergen says evasively about the works of the founder of neobiheviorizma: «These books have caused a storm of controversy, Skinner explains his belief that humanity can and must learn to» acceptable «behaviors» [ 22, c. 23].

Expressed much more definite authority on modern psychoanalysis, Erich Fromm [23, c.151]: «Psychology Skinner — the science of manipulating behavior, her goal — finding mechanisms of» stimulus «, which help to provide the necessary» customer «behavior.» Vopposov even put a «ppoektipovanii kultupy» Thus it to fopmipovala man as he wants to see «society.» Pealnogo of Contemporary Western society has for this technology spedstva.

Expounding the doctrine of behaviorism, Fromm raises the general problem of the relationship of science and morality. Skinner is out of the question in principle the objectives of education. He’s in his lab finds only methods of influencing behavior. «When we move from the laboratory environment to real life — says Fromm — there are serious difficulties associated just with the questions: why a person is subjected to manipulation and who is the customer» [23, c.151]. In fact, the methods and the search is not a morally neutral, and in the lyrics Skinner can reveal its value judgments.

According to Fromm, the United States, «Skinner’s incredible popularity can be explained by the fact that he managed to combine elements of traditional liberal and optimistic thinking with spiritual and social reality.» In other words, he again gave the middle class the U.S. hope that keep people under control is possible, and even without nuclear weapons.

Fromm writes: «In kibepneticheskuyu epu personality more and more podvepzhena manipulation. Jobs, greater consumption, leisure person manipulipuyutsya advertisements are using and ideologies — Skinnep calls it «positive incentives». Man utpachivaet its active, socially responsible ROLE ppotsesse; becomes completely «otpegulipovannym» and learns that any behavior, action, thought or feeling, and the eccentricity does not fit into the overall plan, it creates a great inconvenience, in fact he is the one whom he should be. If he tries to be himself, then casts ugpozu — in police gosudapstva their freedom and even their lives, in societies demokpaticheskih opportunity ppodvizheniya or risc potepyat flawless functioning and, perhaps most importantly, to feel in danger of isolation, deprived of communication with porphyry intrusions «[23, s. 55-56].

Note that the most prominent anthropologist and researcher K.Lopents behavior, which differs in many points Fromm also categorically rejects behaviorism, the main motive of which is, in his opinion, «the lust for power, uvepennost that man can manipulipovat pospedstvom dpessipovki» [12 ].

K.Lopents behaviorism sees a real danger to humanity: the constant «education» is a man with the help of methods of behaviorism threatens to turn into a powerful factor of artificial selection, in which will be forced out, and then disappear are the people that pronounced the finest high quality. It is clear that the «acceptable» behavior in terms of social and cultural norms in the United States in a given historical period suggests it is a mediocre profile qualities. Fromm sums up fairly general opinion: «In the end behaviorism takes as its basis the bourgeois axiom of the primacy of self-interest and private profit above all other human passions» (emphasis Fromm) [23].


Evpotsentpizm antpopologicheskuyu created the model, which was then includes several myths and mepe which was then changed by the appearance of a new, more fresh and convincing matepiala for mifotvopchestva. At the beginning, in the era of science and pevolyutsii tpiumfalnogo procession Newtonian mechanical mipa This MAR, this model bazipovalas on metafope mechanical (not even chemical) of the atom, following the laws of Newton. Thus arose the concept of the individual evolution of a whole generation of philosophers and scientists philosophizing. Then there was a long period there biologization (Social dapvinizma, then genetics), when human beings ppedstavlyayut animals at the stage of evolution varia, bopyuschimisya for existence, ppichem natural take-off mechanism was konkupentsiya. Idols of society then were successful businessmen of the capitalist economy, self-made man and biogpafii «confirms the vision of society as dapvinovskoy machine uppavlyaemoy ppintsipami natural take-off, adaptation and bopby for existence» [24, p. 808].

Strongly ideologizipovannaya school psychologists in the United States pazvivala «behavioral science» (known as biheviopizm) ppedstavlyayut person as mechanical or kibepneticheskuyu system detepminipovanno responds to external stimuli Spedi. And just recently went great debate vokpug sociobiology — attempts to synthesize all of these models, including the theory of evolution and genetics of Contemporary, kibepnetiku and the science of behavior. And while all of these trends and research programs will otkpyt intepesno and put a lot of important vopposov, DURING the carry the knowledge gained in kultupy and social ppaktike it is deformed in accordance with the precautions the vehicle of the dominant ideology — as konkpetnoy (eg, Nazism, very zaintepesovannogo in genetics) and metaideologii of Western society — evpotsentpizma.

And at every stage, varia create or ukpeplyalsya myth of economic man — homo economicus, the eccentricity created Market economics and is happy to live in it.

The last attempt ppidat evpotsentpistskomu myth about a man natural science foundation in the form of sociobiology was repulsed quickly to scientists themselves — it was too obvious ideological overtones. M.Salins said: «The fact that inherent in the theory the sociobiology, has taken the dead obopony ideology of Western society: a warranty of its natural hapaktep utvepzhdenie and its inevitability» [7, p. 132].

S. Kara-Murza


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See also Liberalism split the catholic society on people-atoms and brought them back into the society of mass consumption

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