System «Perimeter» (index ASU RVSN — 15E601, in Western Europe and the United States is known as the English. Dead Hand, almost «dead hand») — a set of automatic control massive nuclear retaliation made in the USSR in the midst of war cool. Designed to guarantee its combat orders from the highest levels of management (the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces, Department of RVSN) to team and individual Fri launchers strategic missiles, standing on alert in case of an emergency, when the communication lines may be damaged.
The U.S. has a similar set of functionality — Emergency Rocket Communications System.
There is also a perception that the system is the embodiment of the machines a day or judgment, but reliable evidence for this exists.
On its own entity system «Perimeter» is another command system for all types of troops, armed with nuclear warheads. It was created as a spare communications system in case the main components of the system command «Kazbek» RVSN and communication lines will be destroyed in a first strike developed in coordination with the U.S. concept of limited nuclear war.
In order to ensure implementation of its own role system was initially designed as a one hundred percent automatic, and in the case of a massive attack is able to decide on an adequate retaliatory strike without the help of others, without the participation (or the smallest role) man. The existence of a similar system from time to time called immoral, but it is actually the only deterrent, giving real guarantees failure potential enemy from concept devastating preventive strike.
According to Vladimir Yarynich, 1st of the developers of the system, the system also served as insurance against the supreme control of the country making a hasty decision on the basis of unverified of information. Upon receiving the signal from the system of missile warning, the first face of the country could activate the «Perimeter» relaxed and await developments, while for all this to the full conviction that even the destruction of all who has the potential to impact on the response to the attack team, not be able to prevent retaliation. Those one hundred percent preclude a decision on retaliation in the event of incorrect excitement.
The mechanism of the system
After the order, purchased from the higher echelons RVSN a special command post, there is a rocket launch command 15P011 with a special warhead 15B99, which in flight sends commands to start all PU and team Fri RVSN having appropriate receivers.
Constituent components of the system Perimeter.
Positions of command system
Apparently, the structures are similar to the standard missile silo SRF. Contain the necessary to ensure the system control equipment and communication systems. Presumably integrated with missile launchers team, but most of all, they are separated by a great distance sufficient to ensure the best survival system. According to unconfirmed reports, there are more than four self-contained enterprise, duplicating each other function, the chief of which, by guesswork Western military professionals, located in the area south of Moscow.
Command 15A11 missile system Perimeter
The only widely recognizable components of the complex. Enter into a complex command missiles 15P011 index 15A11 and have developed «Yuzhnoye» based missiles 15A16 (MR UR-100U). Equipped special warhead 15B99 containing radio engineering team development system OKB LPI created to guarantee its combat orders to a central command Fri Fri all command and launchers in the criteria effects of nuclear explosions and active electronic countermeasures, when flying warhead on passive stretch of line movement. Techno missiles similar operation manual 15A16 missile base. Launcher 15P716 — mine, automatic, highly protected, such as the OS, most likely — upgraded OS PU-84. Not excluded the possibility of basing missiles and other types of silos.
Development Command missiles launched by the Ministry of Defense TTT in 1974. Flight development tests were performed on the NIIP-5 (Baikonur) from 1979 to 1986. A total of seven starts (6 successful, partly successful one). MS mass 15B99 — 1412 kg.
Provide reception of orders and code components of the nuclear triad of command missiles in flight. They are all equipped launchers SRF all SSBNs and strategic bombers. Presumably, the receptors associated with hardware monitoring and launch equipment, providing independent execution of the order on the run.
Autonomous control and command system
Fabulous component system — the main element of a day or Yom machines, the existence of which there is no reliable information. Some supporters of the existence of such a system believe that it is an easy expert system equipped with an abundance of communication systems and sensors monitoring a combat situation. This system allegedly stalking presence and intensity of negotiations in live on military frequencies, telemetry receiving signals from their posts RVSN, the radiation level at the surface and in the districts, the constant emergence of massive point sources of ionizing radiation and electrical main coordinates that coincide with all this short-term seismic sources perturbations in the Earth’s crust (which corresponds to the picture of application of multiple ground-based nuclear strikes), and perhaps the presence of the CP living. Based on the correlation of these reasons, you might be and takes the final decision about the necessity of retaliation.
Another variant of the alleged system — upon the first signs of disk imaging missile attack Supreme system into battle mode. Then, if the command within a certain time point of the system is not receiving a signal to stop fighting method, there is a start command missiles.
In an informal interview with Wired magazine one of the developers of the system, Vladimir Yarynich, report follow-up information about the method of work of the «Perimeter»:
It has been designed so as to be in a dormant state until the senior official does not activate it in a crisis situation. Then she started to monitor a network of sensors — seismic, radiation, atmospheric pressure — for signs of nuclear explosions. Before launch a retaliatory strike, the system would have to check four «if»: if the system has been activated, first she tried to find whether there is any use of nuclear weapons on the Russian countryside. If it turned out to be similar to the truth, the system would check the link c General Staff. If there was a connection, the system would be automatic disconnected after a certain time — from 15 minutes to an hour — passed without any further signs of the attack, on the assumption that officials are able to give the order to counterattack, as before live. But if there was no connection, «Perimeter» would have decided that Judgment day has arrived, and immediately transferred the right decision to start what ever, who at that moment was to deep protected bunker, bypassing ordinary countless instances.
Arguments against the implementation capacity in the «Perimeter» machines a day or Judgment.
Opponents of the existence of the system capacity machines a day or Yom lead following arguments:
All the existing system of missile launch aims to prevent inadvertent and unauthorized execution. No computers in the system start-up is not used, triggering occurs virtually by hand. The existence of a day or machines Judgment contradicts this concept.
The efficiency and accuracy of the expert system with «a plurality of communication systems and sensor» is dependent upon the communication systems and sensors. But the performance of communication systems and hence the link between the command points, which enables people to make decisions about the impact and without the aid of machines.
According to some reports, in the event of an impact, in the absence of communication, etc., click on missile launching in the Central Command, emergency, mobile and other team Fri able to give without the help of others, without the approval of senior management.
In the description of the method of work of the «Perimeter», manufactured by Vladimir Yarynich informal interview magazine Wired, the system «Perimeter» is also not a day or Machine Judgment, because the team at the start command is given to the rocket man.
History of creation
During the war, both sides cool confrontation were made highly effective tools of oppression adversary electronic command and control means RVSN, resulting become very topical task guaranteed its combat orders from the highest levels of management (the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces, Department of RVSN) to team and individual Fri strategic launchers missiles, standing on alert in case of a full-scale conflict. In the process of research design had the idea to use as a backup communication channel dedicated team rocket equipped with a massive radio transmitting device that runs in the case of guaranteed defeat higher command units SRF and the command to start all missiles on combat duty in all areas of the USSR. Work on the theme of a special command system, which received the title of «Perimeter», were charged CB «South», the USSR government decree № 695-227 on August 30, 1974 Originally intended as a basic rocket MR UR-100 (15A15 index), but then developers have suspended their own choices on the rocket MR UR-100UTTH (index 15A16). Redesigned in the part of management team rocket received index 15A11 and December 1975 was carried out its preliminary design.
Instead of standard warhead rockets 15A11 installed special head part (index 15B99), which included a specially designed EDO LPI for the project radio systems. To ensure the relevant performance criteria, radio head part was during the flight to maintain a constant orientation in space. Was designed a special orientation and stabilization system that uses cool compressed gas that significantly reduced its price and time of creation. Lock and special warhead was cooperated on NGO boom in Orenburg
After ground testing technical solutions missile system in 1979 began flight development tests missile command. At the test site for this were built two experimental silos. Besides was created custom command center, filled newest, unique combat control equipment for remote control and command launch rockets. Flight tests were carried out under rocket State Commission headed by Lieutenant-General Vladimir Korobushin, first deputy chief of staff of the Strategic Missile Forces Head. First rocket launch from the experimental model of the transmitter was successfully held on 26 December 1979. During the tests, were tested developed sophisticated methods of conjugation of all systems involved in the trials, the ability to provide a missile of this line of flight movements and the work of all MS office systems in normal mode, proved the correctness of the adopted technical solutions.
Total flight test was 10 missiles. During the test system were conducted real ICBM launches various types of combat objects on orders transmitted command 15A11 missile during flight. To do this, on launchers of these missiles were installed additional antennas and receivers installed system «Perimeter». Later refinements similar undergone all launchers and command posts of the SRF. Total during flight tests of 6 starts were found to be successful, and one — the best kind. In connection with the coup trials and implementation goals State Commission considered likely to be satisfied family starts instead of the planned 10. Immediately with flight tests performed ground tests of efficiency in the entire complex criteria damaging effects caused by a nuclear explosion. The tests were conducted at the site of the Kharkov Physico-Technical Institute, laboratories VNIIEF (Arzamas-16), also at the nuclear test site newcomer Earth. The checks carried out confirmed the efficiency of the equipment at exposure levels affecting causes a nuclear explosion, exceeding the requirements specification data of the Ministry of Defence. In addition, during testing by government decree was tasked to expand the functions of the complex, with bringing military orders not only objects to the Strategic Missile Forces, and for SSBNs, distant aircraft and naval missile-carrying aircraft on the ground and in the air, and Fri control SRF Air Force and the Navy. Flight design tests missile command was completed in March 1982, and in January 1985, the complex «Perimeter» was put on combat duty.
In the development of complex participated many businesses and organizations of various ministries and departments. Chief among them: OKB LPI — NGO Pulse (VI Melnik), NGOs AP (NA Pilyugin), LACA (AF Utkin) TSKBEM (BR Aksyutin) MNIIRS (A. P . Bilenko) VNIIS (BJ Osipov), CDB Geophysics (GF Ignatiev), NII-4 MO (EB Volkov).
Operation of the system and its current status
After posing on the alert and at times complex work was used in the command post exercises. Team 15P011 missile with a missile 15A11 (based on MR UR-100) was on duty right up to June 1995, when an agreement START-1 complex was removed from combat duty. According to others, it came out September 1, 1995, when the 7th Missile Division (pgt. Vypolzovo) was removed from duty and disbanded the 510-th missile regiment armed with missiles command. This event coincided with the end of decommissioning of RVSN missile MR UR-100 and start in December 1994, the process of re-7th rd on mobile missile complex «Topol».
In December 1990, the 8th Missile Division (pgt. Yurya) on combat duty Regiment (commander — Colonel Arzamastcev SI) team with upgraded missile system, which received the title of «Perimeter-RC», which comes in the team rocket made based ICBM RT-2PM «Topol».
There is also evidence that the earlier part of the «Perimeter» with 15A11 missile missiles were team-based MRBM «Pioneer». Such movable complex «pionerovskimi» command missiles carried the name «Horn». Index complex — 15P656, rockets — 15ZH56. Clearly, at least, of one unit of Strategic Missile Forces mission, which was armed with complex «Horn» — 249th Missile Regiment, stationed in the town of Polotsk, Vitebsk region 32nd Missile Division (Postavy) from March-April 1986 to 1988 was on duty with the mobile missile complex command.
Organizations involved in the manufacture of devices and maintenance of the complex, have difficulties with financing. High turnover of staff, resulting in falls qualified personnel. Despite this, the management of the Russian Federation more than once reassuring foreign countries that the risk of accidental or unauthorized missile launch does not exist.
The Western press for the system was fixed title «dead hand» (dead hand).
According to Wired magazine in 2009, the system of «Perimeter» works and is ready to strike back.
In December 2011, the commander of the Strategic Missile Forces, Lieutenant General Sergei Karakayev said the system «Perimeter» exists and is on the alert.